Targeting proteins to specific domains within the cell is central to the generation of polarity, which underlies many processes including cell fate specification and pattern formation during development. The anteroposterior and dorsoventral axes of the Drosophila melanogaster embryo are determined by the activities of localized maternal gene products. At the posterior pole of the oocyte, Oskar directs the assembly of the pole plasm, and is thus responsible for formation of abdomen and germline in the embryo. Tight restriction of oskar activity is achieved by mRNA localization, localization-dependent translation, anchoring of the RNA and protein, and stabilization of Oskar at the posterior pole. Here we report that the type 1 regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (Pka-R1) is crucial for the restriction of Oskar protein to the oocyte posterior. Mutations in PKA-R1 cause premature and ectopic accumulation of Oskar protein throughout the oocyte. This phenotype is due to misregulation of PKA catalytic subunit activity and is suppressed by reducing catalytic subunit gene dosage. These data demonstrate that PKA mediates the spatial restriction of Oskar for anteroposterior patterning of the Drosophila embryo and that control of PKA activity by PKA-R1 is crucial in this process.