During Drosophila visual system development, photoreceptor (R) axons choose their correct paths and targets in a step-wise fashion. R axons with different identities make specific pathfinding decisions at different stages during development. We show here that the transmembrane protein Golden goal (Gogo), which is dynamically expressed in all R neurons and localizes predominantly to growth cones, is required in two distinct steps of R8 photoreceptor axon pathfinding: Gogo regulates axon-axon interactions and axon-target interactions in R8 photoreceptor axons. gogo loss-of-function and gain-of-function phenotypes suggest that Gogo mediates repulsive axon-axon interaction between R8 axons to maintain their proper spacing, and it promotes axon-target recognition at the temporary layer to enable R8 axons to enter their correct target columns in the medulla. From detailed structure-function experiments, we propose that Gogo functions as a receptor that binds an unidentified ligand through its conserved extracellular domain.