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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\ato
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
atonal
Annotation Symbol
CG7508
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0010433
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
Developmental protein involved in neurogenesis. Required for the formation of chordotonal organs and photoreceptors. Seems to bind to E boxes. Specifically required for the photoreceptor R8 selection. (UniProt, P48987)
Contribute a Gene Snapshot for this gene.
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:8,278,052..8,279,274 [+]
Recombination map
3-48
RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:8278052..8279274
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (23 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001454287
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (19 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (16 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from expression pattern
involved_in brain development
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in neuron recognition
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001454287
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001454287
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in nucleus
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
is_active_in nucleus
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001454287
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins that regulate transcription. They are characterized by a 60 amino acid region comprising a basic DNA binding domain followed by a HLH motif formed from two amphipathic α-helices connected by a loop. bHLH transcription factors form homo- and hetero-dimeric complexes, which bind to a E box consensus sequence. (Adapted from PMID:15186484).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Developmental protein involved in neurogenesis. Required for the formation of chordotonal organs and photoreceptors. Seems to bind to E boxes. Specifically required for the photoreceptor R8 selection.
(UniProt, P48987)
Summary (Interactive Fly)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\ato for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.49

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0081828
1223
312
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

1.6 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0081318
34.1
312
4.90
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

312 (aa); 34 (kD)

Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Efficient DNA binding requires dimerization with another bHLH protein. Forms a heterodimer with Daughterless.

(UniProt, P48987)
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\ato using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

In embryonic brain, expressed in two small clusters of cells (3-5 cells in each hemisphere) in the dorsal central brain; during stage 13 only. In L3 brain, detected in the inner proliferation center of the optic lobes and in two clusters of 20-30 cells in each of the central brain hemispheres.

In imaginal discs, ato transcripts are expressed in a dynamic pattern. Expression occurs in epidermal clusters followed by stronger expression in a smaller number of subepidermal cells in place of each cluster. These are almost exclusively the proneural clusters and SOPs of the chordotonal organs. It is also expressed in the morphogenetic furrow and in the inner proliferation zone of the developing brain. Embryonic expression is also characterized by a dynamic pattern of clusters and stripes that are thought to correspond to the proneural clusters and SOPs of chordotonal organs.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
distribution deduced from reporter
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

ato-protein expression can be found in dac-positive neuroblasts in the distal part of the inner proliferation zone in the larval optic anlage.

ato-protein expression detected in the inner proliferation center of the developing optic lobe.

ato is expressed in the developing retina in a broad stripe anterior to the morphogenetic furrow. It is later expressed in small clusters of roughly 20 cells and later in the developing photoreceptor cell R8.

ato and sens are detected in sensory precursor cells in embryonic stage 9, earlier than the rho reporter. All three are co-expressed in C1 SOP cells of slightly older embryos. ato expression disappears in stage 11.

ato is expressed in a stripe pattern in the most anterior region of the morphogenetic furrow, in the proneural clusters, and in the R8 founder neurons. It is repressed in a more posterior region of the eye disc. B is expressed in a complimentary pattern to ato in the basal undifferentiated cells.

Expression in procephalic neuroblasts stage 9-11: deuterocerebrum - d9, d11-13, v1, v3; protocerebrum - pd19

In stages 8-10 ato protein, a marker for sensory precursors, is expressed in small patches in the antennal and preantennal ectoderm. 7 neuroblasts are derived from these patches. Expression of ato in the procephalic region is largely complementary to that of proneural genes of the Achaete-Scute-Complex.

In embryonic brain, expressed in two small clusters of cells (3-5 cells in each hemisphere) in the dorsal central brain; tentatively identified as ganglion mother cells; during stage 13 only. In each hemisphere of the adult brain, expressed in a cluster of about 30 cells adjacent to the lobula and in another group of cells in the ventro-lateral brain.

Double labelling experiments were done to reveal the site of expression of ato relative to dpp which marks the deepest part of the morphogenetic furrow. ato protein expression begins just anterior (about 2-3 cell diameters) to dpp (as revealed by β-galactosidase). Refinement to intermediate clusters takes place just anterior to the edge of dpp expression and confinement to future R8 cells occurs in the deepest part of the furrow. Double staining with anti-ato antibodies and phalloidin reveals that the restriction of ato to intermediate groups precedes the patterning revealed by phalloiding staining. ato protein also marks the R8 cell before it is recognized by other markers or histological staining.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in nucleus
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{ato-EGFP.IPC}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{ato-GAL4.3.6}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
antennal disc | restricted

Comment: reference states 22-30 hr APF

external sensory organ precursor cell of antennal disc

Comment: reference states 22-30 hr APF

external sensory organ precursor cell | subset

Comment: reference states 22-30 hr APF

coeloconic sensillum

Comment: reference states 36 hr APF

Reporter: P{ato-GAL4.IPC}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{ato-lacZ.5.6}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{ato-tau-myc}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}atoNP6558
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\ato in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 20 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 30 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of ato
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of ato
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 3 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
abdominal basiconical sensillum dbd & larva & nerve terminal, with Scer\GAL4sca.PC
adult thorax & macrochaeta, with Scer\GAL4109
antenna & neuron
antennal segment 3 & fascicle (with Df(3R)p13)
chordotonal organ & wing | ectopic, with Scer\GAL4dpp.blk1
chordotonal organ precursor cell & ventral thoracic disc
eye (with ato2)
eye photoreceptor cell & axon (with ato1)
eye photoreceptor cell & axon (with ato2)
glial cell & antenna (with Df(3R)p13)
glial cell & antennal lobe (with Df(3R)p13)
interneuron & antennal lobe (with Df(3R)p13)
macrochaeta & wing | ectopic, with Scer\GAL4dpp.blk1
morphogenetic furrow & filopodium | somatic clone
olfactory neuron & embryonic antennal sense organ
pioneer neuron & adult antennal nerve & pupa (with Df(3R)p13)
sensory mother cell & antennal disc
sensory mother cell & dorsal mesothoracic disc, with Scer\GAL4109
sensory mother cell & dorsal mesothoracic disc, with Scer\GAL4ptc-559.1
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (14)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
5 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
1  
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
2  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (14)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
4 of 15
Yes
No
 
3  
4 of 15
Yes
No
 
1  
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1  
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
3  
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (13)
3 of 13
Yes
No
3 of 13
Yes
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (11)
3 of 12
Yes
No
3 of 12
Yes
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (18)
5 of 15
Yes
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (3)
5 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190EDA )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150AMA )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0Q5Y )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0QHK )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (7)
4 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 2 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Dmel gene
    Ortholog showing functional complementation
    Supporting References
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Efficient DNA binding requires dimerization with another bHLH protein. Forms a heterodimer with Daughterless.
    (UniProt, P48987 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map
    3-48
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:8,278,052..8,279,274 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    84F6-84F6
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}Mcm2rL074 and P{EP}EP833
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    84F-84F
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (20)
    Genomic Clones (12)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (3)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

        For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

          cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
          BDGP DGC clones
            Other clones
              RNAi and Array Information
              Linkouts
              DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
              GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
              Antibody Information
              Laboratory Generated Antibodies
              Commercially Available Antibodies
               
              Other Information
              Relationship to Other Genes
              Source for database identify of

              Source for identity of: ato CG7508

              Source for database merge of
              Additional comments
              Other Comments

              ato is required for the normal formation of the larval dorsal organ.

              dsRNA has been made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene. RNAi of ato results in reduced numbers of class I da neurons and altered arborization patterns of class I dendrites. RNAi also causes alterations in the number of MD neurons and defects in dendrite morphogenesis.

              Larvae injected with dsRNA against ato show normal thermotactic behaviour.

              Ectopic expression of ato in the precursors of md neurons transforms all aspects of their central projection to form a ch-like arborization.

              gro and H regulate the expression of ato.

              ato is required for proper axon branching and arborisation in the central brain (where it does not act as a proneural gene).

              ato is sufficient for specification of coeloconic sensilla in the antenna.

              Bolwig's organ formation is governed by ato, the expression of which is under the control of hh, eya and so.

              Reduced ato function gives rise to R8 photoreceptors that are functionally compromised: both recruitment and axon pathfinding defects are evident.

              ato regulates signalling and other properties of R8 photoreceptor cell precursors.

              A negative regulatory loop involving MAPK activation and ato repression is required for the generation of evenly spaced proneural clusters in the developing eye imaginal disc.

              ato functions to drive cells to Bolwig's organ as opposed to optic lobe fate in the developing embryonic visual system.

              hh is required in the developing eye both for the induction of ato expression that prefigures the position of the R8 cells, and for the repression of ato expression between the nascent proneural clusters.

              Candidate gene for quantitative trait (QTL) locus determining bristle number.

              Loss of function and overexpression studies reveal ato is both necessary and sufficient to specify one morphological type of olfactory sensilla on the antenna and all olfactory sensilla on the maxillary palp.

              ato expression is coupled to N signalling only at a critical autoregulatory stage. Results propose that transitions between successive phases of proneural gene expression are important for neuronal pattern formation.

              Both da and ato are independently activated within the eye disc, proper maintenance of both da and ato expression is dependent on the other protein.

              ro is a retina-specific negative regulator required for proper resolution of ato expression and proneural migration. ro acts in conjunction with the more ubiquitously used N regulatory pathway.

              All proneural proteins are similarly able to promote the segregation of a neural precursor at the MP2 neuroblast position but show distinct capacities in its specification.

              The basic domain of ato contains neuronal type specificity that determines the activity in the formation of the chordotonal organs.

              The R8 fate in the developing eye is likely to be decided by the balance of the transcription factors encoded by ato and ro. The ato and ro products act as positive and negative factors, respectively, of such R8-specific genes as boss.

              ato encodes the proneural gene for chordotonal organs and photoreceptors. The restriction of ato expression to the intermediate groups in the eye disc is, with sca expression, the earliest ommatidial patterning event identified. ato and sca expression identify the R8 cell before it is recognisable by other markers or histological staining.

              ato is the proneural gene for photoreceptors. Photoreceptor formation requires the function of ato at the morphogenetic furrow and ato is specifically required for R8 selection.

              The ato gene was identified in a PCR screen for genes sharing features with the basic helix loop helix domains of the achaete-scute genes. Mutant analysis indicates that ato is a proneural gene required for the formation of chordotonal organs.

              Origin and Etymology
              Discoverer
              Etymology
              Identification
              External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 28 )
              Sequence Crossreferences
              NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
              GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
              GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
              RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
              UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
              Other crossreferences
              BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
              EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
              Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
              Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
              GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
              iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
              KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
              MARRVEL_MODEL
              modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
              Linkouts
              BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
              DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
              DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
              FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
              FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
              FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
              Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
              MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
              MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
              Synonyms and Secondary IDs (11)
              Reported As
              Symbol Synonym
              ato
              (Casares and McGregor, 2021, Üçpunar and Grunwald Kadow, 2021, Chang et al., 2020, Keder et al., 2020, García-Morales et al., 2019, Gaspar et al., 2019, Hassan et al., 2019, Mohapatra and Menuz, 2019, Sapar and Han, 2019, Schilling et al., 2019, Shokri et al., 2019, Baker and Brown, 2018, Bischof et al., 2018, Jacobs et al., 2018, Paul et al., 2018, Bhattacharya et al., 2017, Karaiskos et al., 2017, Neuert et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Weinberger et al., 2017, Bernardo-Garcia et al., 2016, Halachmi et al., 2016, Hussain et al., 2016, Sarov et al., 2016, Yuan et al., 2016, Doggett et al., 2015, Schertel et al., 2015, Wittkorn et al., 2015, Amcheslavsky et al., 2014, Fernandes et al., 2014, Karandikar et al., 2014, Menuz et al., 2014, Oliva et al., 2014, Tanaka-Matakatsu et al., 2014, Zhou et al., 2014, Chen et al., 2013, Das et al., 2013, Langen et al., 2013, Mishra et al., 2013, Spratford and Kumar, 2013, Zhang et al., 2013, Distefano et al., 2012, Long et al., 2012, Nfonsam et al., 2012, Plavicki et al., 2012, Powell et al., 2012, Robertson et al., 2012, Senthilan et al., 2012, Yu et al., 2012, Bhattacharya and Baker, 2011, Brockmann et al., 2011, Cachero et al., 2011, Cave et al., 2011, Lubensky et al., 2011, Makhijani et al., 2011, Miles et al., 2011, Nadrowski et al., 2011, Pi et al., 2011, Wu et al., 2011, Aerts et al., 2010, Baig et al., 2010, Bardin et al., 2010, Biehs et al., 2010, Gutzwiller et al., 2010, Klein et al., 2010, Lopes and Casares, 2010, Pennington and Lubensky, 2010, Sen et al., 2010, Witt et al., 2010, zur Lage and Jarman, 2010, Aerts et al., 2009, Benton et al., 2009, Bossuyt et al., 2009, Choi et al., 2009, Kahali et al., 2009, Lee et al., 2009, Li et al., 2009, Ruedi and Hughes, 2009, Schaaf et al., 2009, Schuettengruber et al., 2009, del Alamo and Mlodzik, 2008, Erclik et al., 2008, Kandachar et al., 2008, Li-Kroeger et al., 2008, Li-Kroeger et al., 2008, Lim et al., 2008, Melicharek et al., 2008, Pepple et al., 2008, Powell et al., 2008, Tanaka-Matakatsu and Du, 2008, Aerts et al., 2007, Burnett et al., 2007, Curtiss et al., 2007, Doroquez et al., 2007, Ebacher et al., 2007, Escudero and Freeman, 2007, Firth and Baker, 2007, Gebelein and Mann, 2007, Grillenzoni et al., 2007, Maung and Jarman, 2007, Reig et al., 2007, Sprecher et al., 2007, Sukhanova et al., 2007, Bose et al., 2006, Brown et al., 2006, Chanut, 2006, D'Costa et al., 2006, Friedrich, 2006, Holohan et al., 2006, Jones et al., 2006, Ng et al., 2006, Ostrin et al., 2006, Otsuna and Ito, 2006, Urbach et al., 2006, Apitz et al., 2005, Gleason, 2005, Hoskins et al., 2005, Reeves and Posakony, 2005, Sen et al., 2005, Zhang et al., 2005, Baker, 2004, Powell et al., 2004, zur Lage et al., 2004, Sun et al., 2003, Urbach and Technau, 2003, Gopfert et al., 2002, Sun et al., 2000)
              Name Synonyms
              atonal
              (Courcoubetis et al., 2019, García-Morales et al., 2019, Papadopoulos et al., 2019, Richardson and Portela, 2018, Wangler et al., 2017, Okumura et al., 2016, Wittkorn et al., 2015, Amcheslavsky et al., 2014, Das et al., 2013, Jarman and Groves, 2013, Naval-Sánchez et al., 2013, Spratford and Kumar, 2013, Distefano et al., 2012, Yu et al., 2012, Bhattacharya and Baker, 2011, Brockmann et al., 2011, Cachero et al., 2011, Ma and Jarman, 2011, Miles et al., 2011, Miura, 2011, Baig et al., 2010, Bardin et al., 2010, Biehs et al., 2010, Herz et al., 2010, Lopes and Casares, 2010, Pennington and Lubensky, 2010, Witt et al., 2010, zur Lage and Jarman, 2010, Aerts et al., 2009, Benton et al., 2009, Bossuyt et al., 2009, Choi et al., 2009, Kahali et al., 2009, Li et al., 2009, Ruedi and Hughes, 2009, Cosetti et al., 2008, Erclik et al., 2008, Jarman et al., 2008, Kandachar et al., 2008, Lage and Jarman, 2008, Li-Kroeger et al., 2008, Lim et al., 2008, Marenda et al., 2008, Melicharek et al., 2008, Pennington and Lubensky, 2008, Pepple et al., 2008, Tanaka-Matakatsu and Du, 2008, Zhang et al., 2008, Bossuyt et al., 2007, Curtiss et al., 2007, Ebacher et al., 2007, Firth and Baker, 2007, Gebelein and Mann, 2007, Grillenzoni et al., 2007, Lopes and Casares, 2007, Reig et al., 2007, Sprecher et al., 2007, Jafar-Nejad et al., 2006, Maricich and Zoghbi, 2006, Ostrin et al., 2006, Parrish et al., 2006, Pueschel and Boekhoff-Falk, 2006, Vrailas and Moses, 2006, Zhang et al., 2006, Boekhoff-Falk, 2005, Gleason, 2005, Mandal et al., 2005, Rodrigues et al., 2005, Voas and Rebay, 2004, Sun et al., 2003, Gopfert et al., 2002, Wilkie et al., 2001, Sun et al., 2000)
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