Males of the Drosophila melanogaster mutant croaker (cro) generate a polycyclic pulse song dissimilar to the monocyclic songs typical of wild-type males during courtship. However, cro has not been molecularly mapped to any gene in the genome. We demonstrate that cro is a mutation in the gene encoding the Calmodulin-binding transcription factor (Camta) by genetic complementation tests with chromosomal deficiencies, molecular cloning of genomic fragments that flank the cro-mutagenic P-insertion, and phenotypic rescue of the cro mutant phenotype by Camta+-encoding cDNA as well as a BAC clone containing the gene for Camta. We further show that knockdown of the Camta-encoding gene phenocopies cro mutant songs when targeted to a subset of fruitless-positive neurons that include the mcALa and AL1 clusters in the brain. cro-GAL4 and an anti-Camta antibody labeled a large number of brain neurons including mcALa. We conclude that the Camta-encoding gene represents the cro locus, which has been implicated in a species-specific difference in courtship songs between D. sechellia and simulans.