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Funikov, S.Y., Rezvykh, A.P., Kulikova, D.A., Zelentsova, E.S., Protsenko, L.A., Chuvakova, L.N., Tyukmaeva, V.I., Arkhipova, I.R., Evgen'ev, M.B. (2020). Adaptation of gene loci to heterochromatin in the course of Drosophila evolution is associated with insulator proteins.  Sci. Rep. 10(1): 11893.
FlyBase ID
FBrf0246230
Publication Type
Research paper
Abstract

Pericentromeric heterochromatin is generally composed of repetitive DNA forming a transcriptionally repressive environment. Dozens of genes were embedded into pericentromeric heterochromatin during evolution of Drosophilidae lineage while retaining activity. However, factors that contribute to insusceptibility of gene loci to transcriptional silencing remain unknown. Here, we find that the promoter region of genes that can be embedded in both euchromatin and heterochromatin exhibits a conserved structure throughout the Drosophila phylogeny and carries motifs for binding of certain chromatin remodeling factors, including insulator proteins. Using ChIP-seq data, we demonstrate that evolutionary gene relocation between euchromatin and pericentric heterochromatin occurred with preservation of sites of insulation of BEAF-32 in evolutionarily distant species, i.e. D. melanogaster and D. virilis. Moreover, promoters of virtually all protein-coding genes located in heterochromatin in D. melanogaster are enriched with insulator proteins BEAF-32, GAF and dCTCF. Applying RNA-seq of a BEAF-32 mutant, we show that the impairment of BEAF-32 function has a complex effect on gene expression in D. melanogaster, affecting even those genes that lack BEAF-32 association in their promoters. We propose that conserved intrinsic properties of genes, such as sites of insulation near the promoter regions, may contribute to adaptation of genes to the heterochromatic environment and, hence, facilitate the evolutionary relocation of genes loci between euchromatin and heterochromatin.

PubMed ID
PubMed Central ID
PMC7368049 (PMC) (EuropePMC)
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    Language of Publication
    English
    Additional Languages of Abstract
    Parent Publication
    Publication Type
    Journal
    Abbreviation
    Sci. Rep.
    Title
    Scientific reports
    ISBN/ISSN
    2045-2322
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