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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\ph-d2
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
FlyBase ID
FBal0013723
Feature type
allele
Associated gene
Associated Insertion(s)
Carried in Construct
Also Known As
ph2
Key Links
Allele class
Nature of the Allele
Allele class
Mutations Mapped to the Genome
 
Type
Location
Additional Notes
References
Associated Sequence Data
DNA sequence
Protein sequence
 
 
Progenitor genotype
Cytology

Polytene chromosomes normal.

Nature of the lesion
Statement
Reference

Deletion of approximately 10kb that joins the 5' end (promoter, untranslated leader and 5' coding sequences) of ph-p to the 3' end of ph-d (3' coding region and untranslated sequences) and removes all sequences in between.

Caused by aberration
Expression Data
Reporter Expression
Additional Information
Statement
Reference
 
Marker for
Reflects expression of
Reporter construct used in assay
Human Disease Associations
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Disease-implicated variant(s)
 
Phenotypic Data
Phenotypic Class
Phenotype Manifest In
Detailed Description
Statement
Reference

ph-d2/+ heterozygous mutant flies exhibit a higher than wild-type average number of legs with sex combs, with an average of 2.6 legs with sex combs, compared to 2.0 in wild-type, although this is not statistically significant.

Mutation changes the level of w expression in ph-plac+3 flies; eye colour is darker.

Heterozygotes with Psc1 are lethal.

Embryonic lethal or semi-lethal when heterozygous with Asx, Pc, Pcl, Psc, Sce or Scm. Unhatched larvae carry segmentation defects or polarity defects.

Hemizygous males usually have sex combs on the second and third legs, show a partial transformation of the posterior wing compartment towards the haltere and show a partial transformation of abdominal segment A4 towards A5, at both 25 and 29oC. Hemizygous males rarely show loss of the humerus and occasionally show partial transformation of abdominal segment A1 towards A2 at 25oC. At 29oC, both these phenotypes are more common. The expressivity and penetrance of these homeotic transformation phenotypes are comparable in ph-d2 and ph-d4 males.

Adults viable.

Homozygous female or hemizygous male flies sometimes show a complete loss of the callus and bristles on the humerus. The prothoracic spiracle is unaffected. The second and third legs are often partially transformed towards the first leg. This transformation is restricted to the anterior compartment, and is particularly noticeable distally, where an extra sex comb appears. Male flies show a strong transformation of wing to haltere at 29oC, and a weak transformation at 24oC. The first abdominal segment shows a partial transformation to a more posterior segment; dorsally, pigment and large bristles appear on the tergite, and ventrally, the sternite acquires bristles characteristic of the second or third abdominal segment. The fourth abdominal segment is often partially transformed to the fifth or sixth abdominal segment in males. All the homeotic transformations are enhanced at 29oC. The temperature-sensitive period (TSP) of the first abdominal segment extends through embryogenesis and the larval stages. The TSP for the wing and leg transformations occurs during the early to mid-third larval instar period. Lethal over deficiencies that uncover the locus.

External Data
Interactions
Show genetic interaction network for Enhancers & Suppressors
Phenotypic Class
Phenotype Manifest In
Enhanced by
Statement
Reference

ph-d2 has sex comb phenotype, enhanceable by Hsc70-4195/Hsc70-4[+]

ph-d2 has leg phenotype, enhanceable by Df(2L)esc-P2-0

ph-d2 has sex comb phenotype, enhanceable by Df(2L)esc-P2-0

ph-d2 has leg phenotype, enhanceable by Df(2L)TW3

ph-d2 has sex comb phenotype, enhanceable by Df(2L)TW3

ph-d2 has leg phenotype, enhanceable by Df(2L)TW201

ph-d2 has sex comb phenotype, enhanceable by Df(2L)TW201

ph-d2 has leg phenotype, enhanceable by Df(2R)CA53

ph-d2 has sex comb phenotype, enhanceable by Df(2R)CA53

ph-d2 has leg phenotype, enhanceable by Df(2R)cn83c

ph-d2 has sex comb phenotype, enhanceable by Df(2R)cn83c

ph-d2 has leg phenotype, enhanceable by Df(3L)fz-GF3b

ph-d2 has sex comb phenotype, enhanceable by Df(3L)fz-GF3b

ph-d2 has leg phenotype, enhanceable by Df(2L)prd1.7

ph-d2 has leg phenotype, enhanceable by Df(3L)fz-GS1a

ph-d2 has sex comb phenotype, enhanceable by Df(3L)fz-GS1a

ph-d2 has leg phenotype, enhanceable by Df(3L)fz-CAL5

ph-d2 has sex comb phenotype, enhanceable by Df(3L)fz-CAL5

ph-d2 has sex comb phenotype, enhanceable by Df(2L)prd1.7

ph-d2 has leg phenotype, enhanceable by Df(2L)esc10

ph-d2 has sex comb phenotype, enhanceable by Df(2L)esc10

ph-d2 has leg phenotype, enhanceable by salm1

ph-d2 has sex comb phenotype, enhanceable by salm1

ph-d2 has leg phenotype, enhanceable by Df(2L)H20

ph-d2 has sex comb phenotype, enhanceable by Df(2L)H20

Enhancer of
Statement
Reference

ph-d2 is an enhancer of phenotype of Pc3

ph-d2 is an enhancer of phenotype of AntpScx

Other
Additional Comments
Genetic Interactions
Statement
Reference

ph-d2/Hsc70-4195 mutant flies exhibit a higher than wild-type average number of legs with sex combs, with a statistically significant average of 4.0 legs with sex combs, compared to 2.6 in ph-d2/+ heterozygotes.

ph-d2 ph-p2 homozygotes do not show a gap in the fourth wing vein at 25 or 29oC. 100% of ph-d2 ph-p2/Y ; en54/+ flies have a gap in the fourth wing vein at 29oC. 100% of ph-d2 ph-p2/Y ; en4/+ flies have a gap in the fourth wing vein at 29oC.

The extra sex combs phenotype of ph-d2 heterozygotes is dominantly enhanced by Df(2L)esc-P2-0, Df(2L)prd1.7, Df(2L)esc10, salm1, Df(2L)H20, Df(2L)TW3, Df(2L)TW201, Df(2R)CA53, Df(2R)cn83c, Df(3L)fz-GF3b, Df(3L)fz-GS1a and Df(3L)fz-CAL5. Lethal in heterozygous combination with Df(2L)Prl.

The abdominal transformations are enhanced by Df(3R)P9, and suppressed by Dp(3;3)P5. The leg transformations are suppressed by Dp(3;3)D1, and enhanced by Df(3R)Scr. Dominant enhancer of Pc3. Interacts with esc20 and Pcl1. Semi-lethal in combination with UbxCbx-2. Escapers show complete transformation of wing to haltere and a marked reduction of the mesonotum. Lethal in combination with Abd-BUab-1. The third abdominal segment is transformed towards segment five or six in males also carrying Abd-BMcp-1. Enhances the ScrMsc, AntpB and AntpScx phenotypes. Does not interact with AntpHu.

Xenogenetic Interactions
Statement
Reference
Complementation and Rescue Data
Rescued by
Comments

Males are completely rescued by ph-d+tSa.

Images (0)
Mutant
Wild-type
Stocks (0)
Notes on Origin
Discoverer
Comments
Comments

Recombinant between ph-d and ph-p regions.

External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 0 )
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (2)
References (12)