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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\hhMrt
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
FlyBase ID
FBal0005484
Feature type
allele
Associated gene
Associated Insertion(s)
Carried in Construct
Also Known As
hhMoonrat
Key Links
Nature of the Allele
Mutations Mapped to the Genome
 
Type
Location
Additional Notes
References
Associated Sequence Data
DNA sequence
Protein sequence
 
 
Progenitor genotype
Cytology
Nature of the lesion
Statement
Reference

hhMrt mutants exhibit a 24bp deletion in the 'C' domain of the hh promoter (The 'C' domain is defined as -4265 to -3214bp upstream of the hh-RB transcription start site).

Expression Data
Reporter Expression
Additional Information
Statement
Reference
 
Marker for
Reflects expression of
Reporter construct used in assay
Human Disease Associations
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Disease-implicated variant(s)
 
Phenotypic Data
Phenotypic Class
Phenotype Manifest In
Detailed Description
Statement
Reference

hh2/hhMrt mutant adults exhibit smaller wings with an ectopic crossvein, as compared to controls.

hhMrt/+ flies have wing phenotypes described in three classes of increasing severity: in class I (68% of hhMrt/+ wings) the distal anterior wing region is slightly expanded and the L2 wing vein partially duplicated; in class II (23%) the distal anterior wing region is expanded and rounded, the L2 wing vein is frequently duplicated (proximally) and absent (distally), and the L3 wing vein is thickened (distally); in class III (9%) the anterior compartment is almost completely rounded, all class II phenotypes are present but more severe, and there is frequent loss of sensory bristles in the anterior wing region.

hhMrt heterozygous mutants exhibit duplication of anterior structures in the wing, such as the L3 wing vein.

Over two-thirds of heterozygous wings show anterior overgrowths.

hhMrt flies show wing vein defects (interior loss and extra veins at the margin) and anterior overgrowth.

hhMrt/+ adult wings show ectopic longitudinal vein L3 tissue.

hhMrt/+ animals exhibit a range of wing phenotypes resulting from different degrees of anterior to posterior transformation of the anterior wing blade.

hhMrt/+ embryos have defects in germ cell migration: and about 60% of the stage 13 to 16 embryos have four or more mispositioned germ cells (n=25). These defects are more severe in hhMrt/hhunspecified embryos: >90% of stage 13 to 16 have ten or more mispositioned germ cells (n = 20).

Wing is mis-shapen due to anterior overgrowth, with loss of wing veins in the interior and extra veins near the margins.

Heterozygotes show a wing phenotype which varies between clear overgrowth of the wing to slight disorganisation of the wing margin and the addition of extra vein material.

Heterozygotes show variable wing defects. Class IV wings show expansion of the distal anterior region and partial duplication of vein 2.

Heterozygous adults show overgrowth and wing patterning defects limited to the anterior part of the wing.

Heterozygotes display expansion of the distal, anterior wing region and accompanying defects in anterior wing veins L2 and L3. Imaginal wing discs are overgrown to varying extents in the anterior regions and display partial duplication of distal wing structures. Wing phenotype is temperature sensitive, penetrance and expressivity are higher at 20oC than 25oC and is more extreme when the hhMrt chromosome is inherited from the father. Posterior wing compartment is unaffected. Homozygous pharate adults dissected from the pupal case display duplications of distal leg, haltere and antennae. Heterozygotes display eye malformations; in some cases the eye is enlarged and misshapen with a rough phenotype.

Overgrowth and ectopic venation in the anterior distal portions of the wing.

Homozygotes are viable.

Deformed wings, extra veins form in the anterior compartment and wing blades display an expansion along the anterodistal edge. Wing discs display an enlargement of the anterior portion of the wing blade.

Heterozygote shows partial transformation of anterior wing to posterior (triple row bristles replaced by double row bristles in patches). A network of extra veins appears in the anterior compartment, beginning at the distal edge in the least affected flies and covering the entire anterior compartment in the more extreme cases. Wing blade expanded anteriorly at the distal edge. Wing blade expansion and extra veins resemble phenotypes seen in en1 homozygotes in the presence of Minute mutations. Bubbles often form in the wing blade. More rarely, a mirror-image outgrowth from the anterior edge is present. Mirror-image duplications sometimes appear in halteres. Legs sometimes appear deformed (similar to phenotype of "enlethal" clones induced in the larva). Dominant phenotypes strongly temperature-sensitive. Penetrance greater than 99% at 18oC (with strong expressivity) but only 30-40% at 29oC (with very weak expressivity). Shows paternal effect. Penetrance greater when mutant allele inherited from father than when inherited from mother. hhMrt/+/+ indistinguishable from hhMrt/+.

External Data
Interactions
Show genetic interaction network for Enhancers & Suppressors
Phenotypic Class
Enhanced by
Statement
Reference

hhMrt has visible | dominant phenotype, enhanceable by mir-14Δ1/mir-14Δ1

hhMrt has visible | dominant phenotype, enhanceable by swm37Dh-1/swm[+]

hhMrt has visible | dominant phenotype, enhanceable by sbb[+]/sbb6

Suppressed by
Statement
Reference

hhMrt has visible | dominant phenotype, suppressible | partially by mtsXE-2258/mts[+]

hhMrt has visible phenotype, suppressible by Nipped-B29/Nipped-B[+]

hhMrt has visible phenotype, suppressible by vtd[+]/vtd10

hhMrt has visible phenotype, suppressible by vtd11/vtd[+]

hhMrt has visible phenotype, suppressible by vtd12/vtd[+]

hhMrt has visible phenotype, suppressible by vtd[+]/vtd3

hhMrt has visible phenotype, suppressible by vtd4/vtd[+]

hhMrt has visible phenotype, suppressible by vtd6/vtd[+]

hhMrt has visible phenotype, suppressible by vtd7/vtd[+]

hhMrt has visible phenotype, suppressible by vtd8/vtd[+]

hhMrt has visible phenotype, suppressible by vtd9/vtd[+]

hhMrt has visible phenotype, suppressible by vtd2/vtd[+]

hhMrt has visible | dominant phenotype, suppressible by fu1

hhMrt has visible | dominant phenotype, suppressible | partially by fu41

hhMrt has visible | dominant phenotype, suppressible by dallyunspecified

NOT suppressed by
Statement
Reference

hhMrt has visible phenotype, non-suppressible by l(3)80Fj2-30

Other
Statement
Reference
Phenotype Manifest In
Enhanced by
Statement
Reference

hhMrt has wing blade phenotype, enhanceable by mir-14Δ1/mir-14Δ1

hhMrt has wing vein L2 phenotype, enhanceable by mir-14Δ1/mir-14Δ1

hhMrt has wing vein L3 phenotype, enhanceable by mir-14Δ1/mir-14Δ1

hhMrt has wing phenotype, enhanceable by swm37Dh-1/swm[+]

hhMrt has wing vein L3 phenotype, enhanceable by sbb[+]/sbb6

hhMrt has germline cell phenotype, enhanceable by ttv[+]/ttvunspecified

hhMrt has leg | ectopic phenotype, enhanceable by AsxXF23/Asx[+]

hhMrt has wing | anterior phenotype, enhanceable by AsxXF23/Asx[+]

hhMrt has leg | ectopic phenotype, enhanceable by Psc[+]/Psc1

hhMrt has wing | anterior phenotype, enhanceable by Psc[+]/Psc1

hhMrt has leg | ectopic phenotype, enhanceable by mxc[+]/mxcG46

hhMrt has wing | anterior phenotype, enhanceable by mxc[+]/mxcG46

hhMrt has leg | ectopic phenotype, enhanceable by ph-d[+]/ph-d401

hhMrt has wing | anterior phenotype, enhanceable by ph-d[+]/ph-d401

hhMrt has leg | ectopic phenotype, enhanceable by phob/pho[+]

hhMrt has wing | anterior phenotype, enhanceable by phob/pho[+]

Suppressed by
Statement
Reference

hhMrt has wing phenotype, suppressible | partially by mtsXE-2258/mts[+]

hhMrt has wing phenotype, suppressible by Nipped-B29/Nipped-B[+]

hhMrt has wing phenotype, suppressible | partially by Hmgcr[+]/Hmgcr11.57

hhMrt has phenotype, suppressible by gpp8

hhMrt has wing vein phenotype, suppressible by vtd[+]/vtd10

hhMrt has wing phenotype, suppressible by vtd[+]/vtd10

hhMrt has wing vein phenotype, suppressible by vtd11/vtd[+]

hhMrt has wing phenotype, suppressible by vtd11/vtd[+]

hhMrt has wing vein phenotype, suppressible by vtd12/vtd[+]

hhMrt has wing phenotype, suppressible by vtd12/vtd[+]

hhMrt has wing vein phenotype, suppressible by vtd[+]/vtd3

hhMrt has wing phenotype, suppressible by vtd[+]/vtd3

hhMrt has wing vein phenotype, suppressible by vtd4/vtd[+]

hhMrt has wing phenotype, suppressible by vtd4/vtd[+]

hhMrt has wing vein phenotype, suppressible by vtd6/vtd[+]

hhMrt has wing phenotype, suppressible by vtd6/vtd[+]

hhMrt has wing vein phenotype, suppressible by vtd7/vtd[+]

hhMrt has wing phenotype, suppressible by vtd7/vtd[+]

hhMrt has wing vein phenotype, suppressible by vtd8/vtd[+]

hhMrt has wing phenotype, suppressible by vtd8/vtd[+]

hhMrt has wing vein phenotype, suppressible by vtd9/vtd[+]

hhMrt has wing phenotype, suppressible by vtd9/vtd[+]

hhMrt has wing vein phenotype, suppressible by vtd2/vtd[+]

hhMrt has wing phenotype, suppressible by vtd2/vtd[+]

hhMrt has wing phenotype, suppressible by Su(hh)IVIV

hhMrt has wing phenotype, suppressible by Su(hh)VV

hhMrt has wing phenotype, suppressible by Su(hh)VIVI

hhMrt has wing phenotype, suppressible by Su(hh)VIIVII

hhMrt has wing phenotype, suppressible by Su(hh)II

hhMrt has wing phenotype, suppressible by Su(hh)IIII

hhMrt has wing phenotype, suppressible by Su(hh)IIIIII

hhMrt has wing vein L2 phenotype, suppressible by fu1

hhMrt has wing | anterior | distal phenotype, suppressible by fu1

hhMrt has wing vein L2 phenotype, suppressible | partially by fu41

hhMrt has wing | anterior | distal phenotype, suppressible | partially by fu41

hhMrt has wing | anterior phenotype, suppressible by dallyunspecified

hhMrt has wing phenotype, suppressible by brm23

hhMrt has phenotype, suppressible by brm19

hhMrt has phenotype, suppressible by brm7

NOT suppressed by
Statement
Reference

hhMrt has wing vein phenotype, non-suppressible by l(3)80Fj2-30

hhMrt has wing phenotype, non-suppressible by l(3)80Fj2-30

Suppressor of
Statement
Reference

hhMrt is a suppressor of wing vein phenotype of Scer\GAL471B, ptcUAS.cJa

Other
Additional Comments
Genetic Interactions
Statement
Reference

mir-14Δ1/mir-14Δ1 significantly enhances wing phenotypes in hhMrt/+ flies, with 55% showing class I phenotypes, 31% showing class II phenotypes and 14% showing class III phenotypes.

The hhMrt heterozygous mutant adult wing phenotype is enhanced in a ci57 or groE48 heterozygous background.

The frequency of the wing overgrowths phenotype seen in hhMrt/+ flies is suppressed by more than 50% if the flies are also heterozygous for mtsXE-2258, and the fraction of wings with a normal shape is increased from 13 to 68%.

The severity of the anterior wing outgrowths phenotype seen in hhMrt/+ flies is enhanced by swm37Dh-1/+.

The wing defects seen in hhMrt mutants are moderately suppressed by Nipped-B29/+.

Loss of one copy of sbb6 strongly enhances the hhMrt heterozygous adult wing phenotype. Wings show duplication of longitudinal wing vein L3 tissue, and enlargement of the anterior compartment. The sensory organs located in the most anterior wing margin (triple row bristles) are transformed into more posteriorly located bristles (double row bristles).

ttvunspecified dominantly enhances the severity of the mild germ cell migration defects seen in hhMrt heterozygous embryos.

The more extreme wing phenotypes seen in hhMrt/+ animals are suppressed by Hmgcr11.57/+. These flies exhibit only the mildest wing phenotypes seen in hhMrt/+ animals.

The germ cell migration defects seen in hhMrt/+ embryos are enhanced by dispunspecified/+ (>90% of stage 13 to 16 embryos have ten or more mispositioned germ cells (n = 20)) and by Hmgcrunspecified/+.

ph-d401/Y;hhMrt/+ wings show increased transformation of the anterior compartment. Psc1, AsxXF23, phob and mxcG46 all enhance the hhMrt phenotypes in both wings and legs.

The wing defects of hhMrt heterozygotes are partially rescued in dallyunspecified heterozygotes and completely suppressed in dallyunspecified homozygotes. The hhMrt/+ phenotype is potentiated by dallyhs.PJ and also by dallyScer\UAS.cJa (in the absence of a Scer\GAL4 activator), converting the wing overgrowth phenotype to mirror image wing duplications in hhMrt/+ ; dallyhs.PJ or hhMrt/+ ; dallyScer\UAS.cJa flies.

In a hhMrt background the wing vein deletions of P{UAS-ptc.J} expressed from Scer\GAL471B are suppressed to mild vein fusions and the wing blade is restored to its normal size.

Xenogenetic Interactions
Statement
Reference
Complementation and Rescue Data
Comments
Images (0)
Mutant
Wild-type
Stocks (1)
Notes on Origin
Discoverer

Kennison.

Comments
Comments

Ectopic expression is due to misregulation of hh in cis. Etymology: the mutation is named "Moonrat" after the closest mammalian relative of the hedgehog.

Recombination removed factors affecting viability of hhMrt homozygotes.

External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 0 )
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (6)
References (33)