As a laboratory animal, Drosophila melanogaster has made extensive contributions to understanding many areas of fundamental biology as well as being an effective model for human disease. Until recently, there was relatively little known about fly peroxisomes. There were early studies that examined the role of peroxisome enzymes during development of organs like the eye. However, with the advent of a well-annotated, sequenced genome, several groups have collectively determined, first by sequence homology and increasingly by functional studies, Drosophila Peroxins and related peroxisome proteins. Notably, it was shown that Drosophila peroxisome biogenesis is mediated via a well-conserved PTS1 import system. Although the fly genome encodes a Pex7 homologue, a canonical PTS2 import system does not seem to be conserved in Drosophila. Given the homology between Drosophila and Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Homo sapiens peroxisome biogenesis and function, Drosophila has emerged as an effective multicellular system to model human Peroxisome Biogenesis Disorders. Finally, Drosophila peroxisome research has recently come into its own, facilitating new discoveries into the role of peroxisomes within specific tissues, such as testes or immune cells.