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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\dsx1
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
FlyBase ID
FBal0003154
Feature type
allele
Associated gene
Associated Insertion(s)
Carried in Construct
Also Known As
dsx
Key Links
Mutagen
Nature of the Allele
Mutations Mapped to the Genome
 
Type
Location
Additional Notes
References
Associated Sequence Data
DNA sequence
Protein sequence
 
 
Progenitor genotype
Cytology
Nature of the lesion
Statement
Reference
Expression Data
Reporter Expression
Additional Information
Statement
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Marker for
Reflects expression of
Reporter construct used in assay
Human Disease Associations
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
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Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease
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Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Disease-implicated variant(s)
 
Phenotypic Data
Phenotypic Class
Phenotype Manifest In
Detailed Description
Statement
Reference

Under control conditions, dsx1 adult posterior midgut clones do not show significant size differences in males and females, as compared to control clones.

dsx1/dsxf00683-d07058 males do not sing sine song and they sing less pulse song, with significant defects in inter-pulse interval, carrier frequency and amplitude, compared to heterozygous controls.

dsxGAL4.Δ2/dsx1 animals are intersex.

A partial A7-like terminal abdominal segment (similar to abdominal segment 7 found in wild-type females) forms and A6 sternite is transformed toward anterior identity in dsx1/dsx18 trans-heterozygous males.

XY dsx1/dsx34 animals show less midline crossing by foreleg gustatory receptor neuron (GRN) axons than seen in control XY males, although they still show a much higher level of midline crossing by foreleg GRN axons than seen in control XX females. XX control females and XX dsx1/dsx34 animals show an extremely low level of midline crossing by foreleg GRN axons.

XX dsx1/dsxD animals do not show an increase in midline crossing by foreleg GRN axons compared to the extremely low level of midline crossing seen in control XX females.

dsxGAL4 produces classical dsx mutant morphological phenotypes when heterozygous with the null allele dsx1.

dsx1/dsx23 mutant gonads are masculinised with respect to hub formation (germline stem cell niche formation).

dsx1/dsx23 mutant embryonic gonads appear fully masculinised.

In the somatic gonad, stage 15 male dsx1/dsx23 mutant embryos are indistinguishable from wild-type males. In contrast, the gonads of both stage 15 female dsx1/dsx23 and dsx1/dsxD mutant embryos exhibit a completely masculinized phenotype, in which male-specific somatic gonadal precursors are clearly present.

Marked clones induced in homozygous intersexual genital discs are confined to either the male or female genital primordium, indicating the existence of a cell lineage restriction. Similarly, marked clones in the male genital primordium do not cross towards the anal primordium.

Two ectopic invaginating pockets of btl-expressing cells derived from the ventral surface of the disc are seen in the A8-derived female primordium of XX ; dsx1/dsx34 genital discs.

Both male and female genital primordia develop in mutant genital discs.

Females hemizygous for dsx1 show male-type pigmentation of A5 and A6, except for a small section in the anterior and lateral part of A5.

XY ; dsx1 males show "normal" levels of head-to-head interactions compared to wild-type males. Homozygous males form short inter-male chains on day 5 after being grouped together, with a maximum of 3 to 4 mutant flies being involved in each chain.

dsx1/dsx43 females have a pheromone profile that resembles, to a first approximation, that of wild-type males. Subtle effects on viability (6-8%) are seen at 25oC and 29oC in flies carrying dsxF.Hsp83 in a dsx1/dsx43 background. At 18o to 25oC, the genitalia are incompletely feminised, although they are clearly more feminised than the intersexual genitalia of XX dsx1/dsx43 animals. The male genital arch, which is normally found in XX dsx1/dsx43 animals, is missing although the pigmentation of abdominal segments A6 and A7 is similar to that observed in XX dsx1/dsx43 animals. The flies have mature, overfilled ovaries containing multiple late-stage eggs. At 29oC, pigmentation and external genitalia of females carrying dsxF.Hsp83 in a dsx1/dsx43 background resembles that of wild-type females. 10-15% of the females are rescued to fertility by a single copy of dsxF.Hsp83. The remaining females are sterile and do not lay eggs. The reason for this sterility is unclear; the external genitalia and internal structures of the gonad closely resemble wild-type and the ovaries are morphologically normal and filled with many late-stage eggs. Males carrying dsxF.Hsp83 in a dsx1/+ background show no effect on abdominal pigmentation, but there is an increase in the frequency of genital rotation and other gross abnormalities of the genitalia compared to males carrying dsxF.Hsp83 in a wild-type background. The number of bristles on abdominal segment 6 is also increased. These males have male-specific accessory glands and the gonads develop as sperm-producing testes. These males court less frequently and less aggressively than dsx1/+ controls, and when they do court it is not sustained for long periods of time. XY flies carrying dsxF.Hsp83 in a dsx1/dsx43 background are transformed into pseudofemales at 25o or 29oC. Externally, these pseudofemales have female abdominal pigmentation and female genitalia and lack sex combs. This external feminisation is fully penetrant with invariant expressivity. Internally, although a uterus is present and male-specific structures such as the accessory glands are absent, the germline and surrounding soma is underdeveloped; there are no distinct ovarioles or developing egg chambers - only amorphous germline/soma cell clusters are seen. There is a complete loss of sex combs (they are transformed into female bristles). Viability is reduced by 38-40% compared to dsx1/dsx43 males. These pseudofemales show little interest in females and perform only early mating behaviours (orientation, tapping, wing extension and vibration). Unlike wild-type females they continue to move around the chamber during copulation and flick their wings in an apparent attempt to dislodge the male.

5% of XY ; her1/her1; dsx1/dsx1 flies have fused intersexual dorsal-lateral anal plates. 70% of XY ; her1/+ ; dsx1/dsx1 and 0% of XY ; her1/her1; dsx1/+ flies have fused intersexual dorsal-lateral anal plates. The number of bristles on the 6th sternite in XY; dsx1/dsx1 flies is increased to the female-specific level.

XY males show courtship sluggishness when compared to wild type siblings. Aging does not improve the courtship performance. Song pulses are similar to those of dsx+ males, though number and duration of song bouts are much reduced. No sine-song bouts whatsoever are generated by dsx mutants. In elicitation and rejection tests, dsx haplo-X mutants demonstrate an attractiveness that cannot be explained by general enfeeblement, such as inability to reject courtship advances.

No more than 26% of XX dsxT/dsx1 mutant pseudomales produce gonads with the most severe group 1 pseudotestes phenotype. The remaining pseudomales have a less severe phenotype, with viable germ cells. otu10 and Df(1)otu-PΔ1 cause an increase in severity of this phenotype: over 70% of the resulting gonads were of group 1.

X/X; dsx1/dsx1 gonads are larger than female though smaller than male gonads. By third instar larvae the gonads are of the female size and do not show the morphology of spermatocytes. X/Y; dsx1/dsx1 and X/Y; dsx1/dsx11germ cells remain small and do not display a typical male phenotype.

XX dsx1/dsx1 and dsx1/Df(3R)dsx15 flies do not show any male-specific courtship when paired with mature virgin females. 30% of XX and 56% of XY dsx1 tra1 double homozygous flies show male-specific courtship when paired with mature virgin females. 6% of XY dsx1/dsx1 flies and 27% of XY dsx1/Df(3R)dsx15 flies show male-specific courtship when paired with mature virgin females. XY dsx1/Df(3R)dsx15 flies have a reduced courtship index (compared to control males) when paired with immature male flies.

Sex specific neuroblasts fail to undergo any postembryonic divisions in male or female larval nervous systems.

Dorsal musculature does not undergo sexual transformation.

virts/virts dsx1/+ XX flies are sterile females with defective inner genitalia at 25oC.

XX flies have an intersex phenotype in trans with dsx6, dsx12, dsx2 or dsx13.

Homozygous flies are intersex, having two somewhat abnormal and incomplete sets of genitalia.

Effects both chromosomal sexes. Homozygous flies have rudimentary gonads, occasionally ovary-like gonads with some oocytes and eggs are seen in XX individuals. dsxD/dsx1 flies are transformed into somatically male-like animals.

Both XX and XY flies are transformed into intersexes.

strong allele; XX and XY equally affected

External Data
Interactions
Show genetic interaction network for Enhancers & Suppressors
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Genetic Interactions
Statement
Reference

dsxΔ/dsx1, Df(3R)Exel6179/+ individuals, dsxΔ/dsx1, Df(3R)Exel6179/fruΔtra individuals and dsxΔ/dsx1, fruP1.LexA/Df(3R)Exel6179 individuals do not show significant changes in mitotic index in the female and male adult posterior midgut, as compared to controls.

fruP1.LexA/Df(3R)Exel6179, dsx1/dsxΔ double transheterozygosity does not suppress the increased mitotic index in the female adult posterior midgut induced by the adulthood-only expression of NKK102890 under the control of Scer\GAL4esg-NP7397 (and Gal80[ts], for the temporal regulation of expression).

XX dsx1 fruΔtra/dsx1 animals have contralateral foreleg gustatory receptor neuron (GRN) axons in most cases. These XX animals have on average, less midline crossings than their XY dsx1 fruΔtra/dsx1 siblings.

ix; dsx transheterozygous progeny from ix3/+; dsx1/+ females crossed to Df(2R)en-B/+; dsx9/+ males show little or no masculinisation

of females, or feminisation of males, as judged by: Mean number of

vaginal teeth; percentage of females with fused dorsal-lateral anal

plates; percentage width of the 6th tergite that is darkly pigmented;

number of bristles in the last transverse row in the foreleg basitarsus

(note this row forms the sex comb in males); or number of bristles

on the sixth sternite.

ix3/Df(2R)en-B; dsx9/dsx1 double mutants show masculinisation

of females, as judged by the following criteria:

The mean number of vaginal teeth is reduced to 6.45 +/- 2.11. 85 %

of females have fused dorsal-lateral anal plates (as wild type; note

that even those with fused plates exhibit variable degrees of partial

fusion as judged against fusion in wild-type females). The mean percentage

width of the 6th tergite that is darkly pigmented is increased to 95%

(+/- 0.4%). The number of bristles in the last transverse row in the

foreleg basitarsus is increased to: 7.25 +/- 0.54 ( this row forms

the sex comb in males).

ix3/Df(2R)en-B; dsx9/dsx1 double mutant females do not

show significant reductions in the number of bristles on the sixth

sternite (20.75 +/- 1.83).

ix3/Df(2R)en-B; dsx9/dsx1 double mutants show feminisation

of males, as judged by the following criteria:

An average of 6.85 (+/- 2.74) ectopic vaginal teeth form.

Fusion of dorso-lateral anal plates is seen in 80% of males.

The number of bristles in the last transverse row in the foreleg basitarsus

is decreased to 7.25 +/-0.54 (this row forms the sex comb in males).

The average number of bristles on the sixth sternite increases dramatically

from near zero to 18.2 +/- 1.58.

ix3/Df(2R)en-B; dsx9/dsx1 double mutant males do not

show significant masculinisation of pigmentation of the 6th tergite,

which remains

96% (+/-3%) darkly pigmented.

ix3/Df(2R)en-B mutant females heterozygous for dsx9 or dsx1

show masculinisation, as judged by the following criteria:

Mean number of vaginal teeth is reduced to 9.7 +/- 5.29. 90 % of females

have fused dorsal-lateral anal plates (as wild type; note that even

those with fused plates exhibit variable degrees of partial fusion

as judged against fusion in wild-type females). The mean percentage

width of the 6th tergite that is darkly pigmented is increased to 92%

(+/-6%). The number of bristles in the last transverse row in the foreleg

basitarsus is increased to: 6.88 +/- 0.65 (this row forms the sex comb

in males).

ix3/Df(2R)en-B mutant females transheterozygous for dsx9/+

or dsx1/+ do not show significant reductions in the number of bristles

on the sixth sternite (21.1 +/-1.68)

ix3/Df(2R)en-B mutant males heterozygous for dsx9 or dsx1

do not show feminisation, as judged by the following criteria:

Mean number of vaginal teeth; percentage of males with fused dorsal-lateral

anal plates; percentage width of the 6th tergite that is darkly pigmented;

number of bristles in the last transverse row in the foreleg basitarsus

(note this row forms the sex comb in males); or number of bristles

on the sixth sternite.

dsx9/dsx1 mutant females heterozygous for ix3 or Df(2R)en-B

show masculinisation, as judged by the following criteria:

Mean number of vaginal teeth is reduced to 6.0 +/-3.55. 65 % of females

have fused dorsal-lateral anal plates (as wild type; note that even

those with fused plates exhibit variable degrees of partial fusion

as judged against fusion in wild-type females). The mean percentage

width of the 6th tergite that is darkly pigmented is increased to 96%

(+/-5%). The number of bristles in the last transverse row in the foreleg

basitarsus is increased to: 7.75 +/- 0.78 (this row forms the sex comb

in males). The average number of bristles on the sixth sternite is

slightly decreased to 19.5 +/- 1.91.

dsx9/dsx1 mutant males heterozygous for ix3 or Df(2R)en-B

show feminisation, as judged by the following criteria:

An average of 6 (+/- 4.19) ectopic vaginal teeth form. Fusion of dorso-lateral

anal plates is seen in 70% of males. The number of bristles in the

last transverse row in the foreleg basitarsus is decreased to 7.45

+/-0.6 (this row forms the sex comb in males). The average number

of bristles on the sixth sternite increases dramatically from near

zero to 17.3 +/- 2.06.

dsx9/dsx1 mutant males heterozygous for ix3 or Df(2R)en-B

do not show significant masculinisation of pigmentation of the 6th

tergite, which remains 95% (+/-4%) darkly pigmented.

XX ; her1/+ ; dsx1/dsx1 and XX ; her1/her1; dsx1/+ flies have an average of 12.4 and 10.5 vaginal teeth respectively, indicating the intersexuality of these flies. XX ; her1/her1 ; dsx1/dsx1 flies have an average of 2.7 vaginal teeth. XY ; her1/+ ; dsx1/dsx1 and XX ; her1/her1; dsx1/+ flies have an average of 12.2 vaginal teeth. XY ; her1/her1 ; dsx1/dsx1 flies have an average of 3.8 vaginal teeth. 5% of XX ; her1/her1; dsx1/dsx1 flies have fused intersexual dorsal-lateral anal plates. 80% of XX ; her1/+ ; dsx1/dsx1 and 30% of XX ; her1/her1; dsx1/+ flies have fused intersexual dorsal-lateral anal plates.

Xenogenetic Interactions
Statement
Reference

dsx1 fruP1.LexA/dsxΔ fruAJ96u3 double mutants rescued with Dana\dsx+t21E22 and Dana\fru+t20H8 sing like Drosophila melanogaster with both pulse and sine song elements present, mutants rescued with Dper\dsx+t31M5 and Dper\fru+t36N18 only sing normal-pulse song but not the sine song but still do not display any evidence of species-specific song interconversion.

Complementation and Rescue Data
Partially rescued by

dsx43/dsx1 is partially rescued by dsxF.Hsp83

Comments
Images (0)
Mutant
Wild-type
Stocks (4)
Notes on Origin
Discoverer

Hildreth.

Comments
Comments

Homozygous XX and XY flies have Yp1, Yp2 or Yp3 proteins in the haemolymph.

Pole cell transplantation experiments show that dsx function is not required in the germ line for the normal development of germ cells according to their chromosomal sex.

Rank order for subnormal courtship in dsx alleles is dsx1 < dsx16 < dsx15 < dsx23.

External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 0 )
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (3)
References (51)