Expressing rhoUAS.cdCa under the control of Scer\GAL4twi.2PE results in the near absence of embryonic ostial cardioblasts, despite of no significant effect in the overall number of cardioblasts.
Expression under the control of Scer\GAL4how-24B leads to a small but significant decrease in the number of embryonic ostial cardioblasts and a converse small but significant increase in the number of generic embryonic cardioblasts, leading to no change in the overall number of embryonic cardioblasts, as compared to controls.
Expression under the control of Scer\GAL4pnr-MD237 does not significantly affect the numbers of embryonic cardioblasts, as compared to controls.
Expression under the double control Scer\GAL4tin.cBa and Scer\GAL4tin.CΔ4 leads to a severe increase in the overall number of embryonic cardioblasts, namely of generic cardioblasts but not of embryonic ostial cardioblasts. This expression also leads to a significant increase in the number of odd and Tin-positive pericardial cells, although the number of even pericardial cells seems unaffected, as compared to controls.
Expression via Scer\GAL4fkh.PH results in salivary glands positioned too anteriorly with no obvious distinction in shape between duct and secretory cells and no common duct-like structure formed at stage 15. At earlier stages during the invagination process, aberrantly shaped lumena are observed, but most prominently a large bulge of eyg-positive ectopic cells seem to arise between the already invaginated secretory gland portions at the position where the individual ducts would normally form.
Expression via Scer\GAL4arm.PU leads to embryos with varying degrees of affected morphology (in many cases head involution fails) and the general appearance of the epidermis is less organized compared to wild type, although epithelial integrity/polarity appears unperturbed. Only very short glands invaginate into the embryo, and a large bulge of eyg-positive cells is found at the surface of the embryo between the two invagination sides.
Whereas control salivary gland placode cells at stages 12-13 do not undergo division, Scer\GAL4fkh.PH rhoScer\UAS.cdCa placode cells are actively dividing.
Overexpression of rhoScer\UAS.cdCa, under the control of Scer\GAL4salm-459.2, gives rise to an invagination phenotype. Two initial invagination sites appear in the placode, and cells from the dorsal side do not rotate, leading to the formation of a double arch at the early stage 11 placode.
In rhoScer\UAS.cdCa; Scer\GAL4en-e16E embryos, induction of larval oenocyte precursors begins at the normal time (during stage 9) and is followed by two waves of delamination with the number of cells (average 3 per wave from each oenocyte primordium) and timing of delamination as in wild-type. However, in these embryos, additional (heterochronic) waves of induction and delamination occur after these two waves (throughout stage 12), resulting in increased numbers of mature oenocytes in stage 16 embryos. Oenocyte clusters in these embryos show a multi-modal distribution of cell numbers with peaks corresponding to multiples of 3 (12, 15, 18 and 21 compared to the wild-type average of 6 resulting from 2 delamination cycles), suggesting there are up to 4 additional waves of delamination. The additional pulses of larval oenocyte precursor delamination occur with the same periodicity as the first two phases in wild-type.
The number of chordotonal organs in the lateral cluster is increased from 5 to 6 in embryos expressing rhoScer\UAS.cdCa under the control of Scer\GAL4en-e16E. In stage 11 embryos, the oenocyte precursor whorl is enlarged and by stage 16 oenocyte clusters containing 17-27 cells are seen.
Expression of rhoScer\UAS.cdCa under the control of Scer\GAL4GMR.PF disrupts eye development leading to a rough eye phenotype. At the cellular level excess cone and pigment cell recruitment is seen, excess photoreceptors are also sometimes seen. When rhoScer\UAS.cdCa is expressed under the control of Scer\GAL4Bx-MS1096, leads to small, pigmented, blistered wings: all cells in the wing are concerted to vein cells. When rhoScer\UAS.cdCa is expressed under the control of Scer\GAL4CY2, embryos have a dorsalised phenotype.