This report describes diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent, IRS1,2-related. The human genes implicated in these forms of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus are IRS1 and IRS2, which are related insulin receptor kinases. There is one fly gene, Dmel\chico, which is orthologous to both human genes, for which classical amorphic alleles, RNAi-targeting constructs, and alleles caused by insertional mutagenesis have been generated.
Neither human gene has been introduced into flies.
Animals that are homozygous for amorphic alleles of Dmel\chico survive to adulthood, but are abnormally small, with lower body weight, fewer ommatidia, smaller wings and fewer cells per wing than wild type; lipid content is increased relative to controls. Physical interactions of the chico protein product have been described; see below and in the FlyBase gene report for chico.
[updated Feb. 2016 by FlyBase; FBrf0222196]
Diabetes mellitus, type 2, also called non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, occurs when cells become resistant to the effects of insulin, thus disrupting the body's ability to metabolize glucose and to properly control the amount of sugar in the blood. [from Genetics Home Reference, Diabetes; 2016.02.02]
Over time, high blood glucose can lead to serious problems such as cataracts and/or retinopathy, impaired kidney function, diabetic neuropathy, and macrovascular complications (heart attack, stroke, peripheral vascular disease). [from endocrineweb; http://www.endocrineweb.com/conditions/type-2-diabetes/type-2-diabetes-complications]
See general description, above.
IRS1 and IRS2 encode proteins which are phosphorylated by insulin receptor tyrosine kinase and thus may mediate the control of various cellular processes by insulin. When phosphorylated by the insulin receptor, IRS1 protein binds specifically to various cellular proteins containing SH2 domains. [from UniProt:P35568, UniProt:Q9Y4H2; 2016.02.04]
Many to one: 2 human to 1 Drosophila; additional orthologous gene in human is IRS1.
Many to one: 2 human to 1 Drosophila; additional orthologous gene in human is IRS2.