The adulthood-only expression of DadScer\UAS.cTa under the control of Scer\GAL4esg.PU, Scer\GAL4dsx.KI or Scer\GAL4spi-NP0261 (in combination with Gal80[ts] for the temporal regulation of expression) leads to a significant decrease in the relative and absolute size of secondary cell nuclei compared to neighboring main cells and wild-type controls; adulthood-only expression under the combined control of Scer\GAL4esg.PU and Gal80[ts] does not affect the size of main cell nuclei compared to controls. The adulthood-only expression under the control of Scer\GAL4dsx.KI (and Gal80[ts]) leads to a significant decrease in the number of secretory vesicles within accessory gland secondary cells, associated with a significant decrease in the size of the largest multivesicular body/lysosome, as compared to controls; there is also a severe decrease in the secretion of (CD63-positive) exosomes into the accessory gland lumen. The adulthood-only expression under the control of Scer\GAL4spi-NP0261 (and Gal80[ts]) leads to a significant increase in the size of the largest multivesicular body/lysosome within accessory gland secondary cells, as compared to controls.
The adulthood-only expression of DadScer\UAS.cTa under the combined control of Scer\GAL4spi-NP0261 and Gal80[ts] also results in both virgin and mated males showing a significant increase in the number of dense core granule compartments within accessory gland secondary cells, as compared to matched controls.
Expression of DadScer\UAS.cTa in secondary cells under the control of Scer\GAL4dsx.KI reduces exosome secretion into the accessory gland lumen compared to controls. Intraluminal vesicles inside MVBs or lysosomes (MVBLs) in male secondary cells are increased compared to controls when DadScer\UAS.cTa is expressed under the control of Scer\GAL4spi-NP0261.
Expression of DadScer\UAS.cTa under the control of Scer\GAL4vg.PM results in a dramatic reduction in size of the wing and wing patterning defects.
Somatic clones of DadScer\UAS.cTa expressing fat body cells driven by Scer\GAL4Act5C.PI show a cell autonomous increase in fluorescently labeled fatty acid uptake compared to wild-type cells.
Embryos expressing DadScer\UAS.cTa in the Malpighian tubules under the control of Scer\GAL4byn-Gal4 do not display normal anterior tubule migration, and the anterior pair of tubules project posteriorly in these animals.
Histoblasts expressing DadScer\UAS.cTa under the control of Scer\GAL4Scer\FRT.Act5C (initiated by heat-shock) prior to the onset of epithelial expansion join part of the periphery of the nest and display normal cell shape and size. However, upon initiation of histoblast spreading, the DadScer\UAS.cTa-expressing histoblasts become highly condensed and are rapidly excluded from the periphery.
Scer\GAL41151 driven DadScer\UAS.cTa engenders a severe reduction in the number of tergal depressor of trochanter (TDT) muscle fibers.
There are significantly fewer TDT founder cells compared to control flies observed 16 hours after puparium formation (APF) as a result of Scer\GAL41151 driven DadScer\UAS.cTa expression.
Posterior overexpression of DadScer\UAS.cTa by Scer\GAL4en-e16E leads to ectopic apical fold formation along the anteroposterior boundary of the larval wing pouch.
Expression of DadScer\UAS.cTa under the control of Scer\GAL4CY2 results in the eggshells with a smaller operculum and deformed dorsal appendages.
Expression of DadScer\UAS.cTa under the control of Scer\GAL4CY2 results in the dorsal appendages being shifted towards the anterior edge of the egg chamber.
Expression of DadScer\UAS.cTa in the peripheral amnioserosa (under the control of Scer\GAL4pAS) results in the progression of the peripheral amnioserosa being delayed. The peripheral amnioserosa becomes highly disorganised and its purse string F-actin is reduced and shows rapidly moving filipodia along the entire outer side.
Expression of DadScer\UAS.cTa under the control of Scer\GAL4dpp.s-hc results in 58% of flies showing head capsule defects. These include vibrissae defects and reduced maxillary palps.
Expression of DadScer\UAS.cTa under the control of Scer\GAL4nos.PG results in a reduction of the number of germline stem cells compared to wild-type germaria.
Wing discs that express DadScer\UAS.cTa under the control of Scer\GAL4Ubx-lac1-Gal4 display aberrant squamous morphogenesis. In some discs, the peripodial epithelium consists entirely of cuboidal-shaped cells, while in others there is a peripodial epithelium with limited squamous cells apposed to clefted folds in the disc proper. The anterioposterior compartment boundary in the peripodial epithelium fails to shift in the absence of squamous morphogenesis. Additionally, these wing discs are slighly smaller than control discs.
Somatic clones of DadScer\UAS.cTa; Scer\GAL4Act5C.Switch.PR cells in mid-third instar wing discs show autonomous decreases in numbers of cells in S-phase after 14 hours treatment with 20μg/ml RU486. However, if the edges of these clones are located medially they cause a large increase in the of cells in S-phase adjacent to the medially located edge of the clone. These effects are weaker than those seen with brkScer\UAS.cJa.
Overexpression of DadScer\UAS.cTa, under the control of Scer\GAL4bi-omb-Gal4 generates defects in the pattern of R axon projection with a penetrance of approximately 40%. Differentiation of lamina neurons is also impaired, along with defects in the formation of the regular crescent shape of the lamina. Epithelial, marginal and medulla glia layers are not clearly distinguishable, with cells irregularly spaced and exhibiting a defect in cell shape. Glial cells fail to develop their characteristic cuboidal shape and look irregular.
Expression of DadScer\UAS.cTa under the control of Scer\GAL4nos.UTR.T:Hsim\VP16 induces differentiation of primordial germ cells in larval ovaries, with 16-cell cysts already being observed at the end of the second larval instar.
In DadScer\UAS.cTa; Scer\GAL4btl.PS embryos, terminal tracheal branches are frequently misdirected. Some extend along the anterior-posterior axis. If such branches reach the adjacent segment, they often bend along the dorsal-ventral axis. Other misdirected terminal branches extend dorsally instead of ventrally, and cross the dorsal midline.
The wing pouch in late third instar wing discs from DadScer\UAS.cTa; Scer\GAL4nub-AC-62 is dramatically reduced in size. Wings in the resulting adults have are reduced to tiny residual stubs.
Testes expressing DadScer\UAS.cTa under the control of Scer\GAL4nos.UTR.T:Hsim\VP16 show a range of phenotypes at 25oC. In 27% of cases, the testes appear wild type. In 21% of cases, the testes appear thinner and smaller than normal and have a visible reduction in the number of germ cells. In the remaining 52% of cases, the testes have degenerated and completely lack germ line stem cells, spermatogonia and spermatocytes.
When DadScer\UAS.cTa clones are made in the developing wing disc under the expression of Scer\GAL4Act5C.PI cell death phenotypes can be seen. 24 hours after clone induction, apoptosis is seen to begin around the wing tip primordium. 36 hours after induction, removal of clones from the wing disc primordium is almost complete. 48 hours after induction, clones only survive outside wing blade primordium.
When expression is driven by Scer\GAL4Gug-AGiR wing discs are small and abnormal, with clefts across the blade primordium. Peripodial membrane remains intact - discs can evaginate normally and give rise to adult cuticle. Adult wings can be small with duplicated margins or occasionally split in half along the AP boundary. At 29oC 15/15 wings were narrower and shorter than wild type conbtrols. When expression si driven by Scer\GAL4c311 eye discs are reduced and devoid of squamous peripodial cells - lacking pattern or neuronal differentiation.
When DadScer\UAS.cTa is driven by Scer\GAL4A9, a reduction in disc size. This reduction is especially pronounced along the anterior posterior axis.
The tracheal systems of DadScer\UAS.cTa; Scer\GAL4btl.PS embryos and larvae lack dorsal branches, although occasional stump-like dorsal outgrowths form in their place. In rare cases these stumps form a dorsal trunk sized lumen. Observation of live embryos shows that dorsal outgrowths and filopodial activities do occur at positions where dorsal branches normally form. These outgrowths look 'bud-like' and form filopodial extensions, but never refine to single cell diameter dorsal branches, and usually reintegrate into the main dorsal trunk.
When expression is driven by Scer\GAL4vg.PM the wing loses its margin and in extreme cases only a tiny winglet forms.