Caspases are at the core of executing apoptosis by orchestrating cellular destruction with proteolytic cascades. Caspase-mediated proteolysis also controls diverse nonlethal cellular activities such as proliferation, differentiation, cell fate decision, and cytoskeletal reorganization. During the last decade or so, genetic studies of Drosophila have contributed to our understanding of the in vivo mechanism of the non-apoptotic cellular responses in developmental contexts. Furthermore, recent studies using C. elegans suggest that apoptotic signaling may play unexpected roles, which influence ageing and normal development at the organism level. In this review, we describe how the caspase activity is elaborately controlled during vital cellular processes at the level of subcellular localization, the duration and timing to avoid full apoptotic consequences, and also discuss the novel roles of non-apoptotic caspase signaling in adult homeostasis and physiology.