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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\gig192
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
FlyBase ID
FBal0095408
Feature type
allele
Associated gene
Associated Insertion(s)
Carried in Construct
Also Known As
Tsc2192
Key Links
Allele class
Mutagen
Nature of the Allele
Allele class
Mutations Mapped to the Genome
 
Type
Location
Additional Notes
References
Comment:

A 161 bp deletion and 7bp insertion that causes a frameshift after amino acid 919 and truncation of the protein after the addition of 16 out of frame amino acids. Position of mutation on reference sequence inferred by FlyBase curator based on author statement.

Associated Sequence Data
DNA sequence
Protein sequence
 
 
Progenitor genotype
Cytology
Nature of the lesion
Statement
Reference

161 bp deletion and 7bp insertion that causes a frameshift after amino acid 919 and truncation of the protein after the addition of 16 out of frame amino acids.

Expression Data
Reporter Expression
Additional Information
Statement
Reference
 
Marker for
Reflects expression of
Reporter construct used in assay
Human Disease Associations
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Disease-implicated variant(s)
 
Phenotypic Data
Phenotypic Class
Phenotype Manifest In
Detailed Description
Statement
Reference

gig192 homozygous intestinal stem cell (ISC) clones are lost over time. In wild-type clones, approximately 86-100% of ISC clones present on day 4 are maintained on day 14, while almost all gig192 homozygous clones present on day 4 are absent on day 14. The remaining ISC clones on day 14 generally contain fewer cells, indicating that the gig192 clones are under-proliferative. The mutant ISCs are also larger than in wild-type. The distribution of TUNEL, a marker for fragmented DNA, indicative of apoptosis, shows that gig192 mutant ISC clones do not undergo apoptosis.

Mitotic clones of gig192 in the eye disc exhibit an increase in apoptosis compared to surrounding wild-type clones.

gig192 mutants exhibit large mutant patches (i.e discoloration and a rough appearance).

Less than 1% of females and no males that have eyes which mainly consist of gig192 clones survive through pupal stages to adulthood. Survivors have large, bulging eyes.

Animals in which the head is homozygous for gig192 (induced using the eyFLP system) have a large eye phenotype.

In somatic clones of gig192 in the eye, cell size is increased by a factor of 1.9 compared to their heterozygous neighbours.

In homozygous mutant clones there is no increase in DNA content - the cells are diploid. Homozygous mutant clones in the wing margin leads to larger wing margin bristles.

Homozygous clones in the wing disc are typically larger than the wild-type twin spot. Mutant cells from the posterior portion of third instar eye discs are larger than wild-type cells as measured by flow cytometry, but have a normal DNA content. There is an increased proportion of cells in S phase with no evidence of either a G2 block or polyploidy. Mutant cells in the third instar wing disc show a significant increase in size compared to wild type as measured by flow cytometry, have a normal DNA content and are not polyploid. The mutant cells are overrepresented in the S and G2 fractions and underrepresented in the G1 fractions compared to wild-type cells. There is a small reduction in division time compared to control cells. The first and second mitotic waves occur normally in mutant clones. S phases occur normally in the asynchronously dividing cells anterior to the morphogenetic furrow as well as in cells undergoing the second mitotic wave in mutant tissue in the eye disc. However, ectopic S phases and mitoses occur posterior to the second mitotic wave in mutant clones.

Cells in mutant clones in the eye and wing are larger than wild type siblings. Cell size change of mutant cells in the eye disc is autonomous and occurs before pattern formation in the eye disc. gig mutant cells endoreplicate their DNA without cell division and show abnormal cell cycle progression. Differentiation of cells within a mutant clone progresses normally.

External Data
Interactions
Show genetic interaction network for Enhancers & Suppressors
Phenotypic Class
Enhanced by
Statement
Reference
NOT Enhanced by
Statement
Reference
Suppressed by
Statement
Reference
NOT Enhancer of
Statement
Reference

gig[+]/gig192 is a non-enhancer of partially lethal - majority die phenotype of hpo+t4.0, hpo42-20

Suppressor of
Statement
Reference

gig[+]/gig192 is a suppressor of partially lethal - majority die phenotype of picPL12c/pic2

gig[+]/gig192 is a suppressor of abnormal developmental rate phenotype of picPL12c/pic2

Tsc129, Tsc1[+], gig[+], gig192 is a suppressor of abnormal developmental rate phenotype of pathKG06640

Tsc129, Tsc1[+], gig[+], gig192 is a suppressor | partially of female sterile phenotype of pathKG06640

Tsc129, Tsc1[+], gig[+], gig192 is a suppressor | partially of decreased fecundity | female phenotype of pathKG06640

Tsc129, Tsc1[+], gig[+], gig192 is a suppressor of decreased body size phenotype of pathKG06640

Tsc129, Tsc1[+], gig[+], gig192 is a suppressor of decreased cell number phenotype of pathKG06640

Tsc129, Tsc1[+], gig[+], gig192 is a suppressor of decreased cell size phenotype of pathKG06640

NOT Suppressor of
Statement
Reference

gig[+]/gig192 is a non-suppressor of partially lethal - majority die phenotype of hpo+t4.0, hpo42-20

Other
Phenotype Manifest In
Enhanced by
Statement
Reference

gig192 has eye disc | somatic clone phenotype, enhanceable by Rbf120a

NOT Enhanced by
Statement
Reference

gig192 has wing margin bristle | somatic clone phenotype, non-enhanceable by Tsc129

Suppressed by
Statement
Reference

Rbf120a, gig192 has eye disc | somatic clone phenotype, suppressible by S6kl-1

Rbf15aΔ, gig192 has eye | somatic clone phenotype, suppressible by E2f1i2

Rbf15aΔ, gig192 has eye | somatic clone phenotype, suppressible by S6kl-1

gig192 has eye | somatic clone phenotype, suppressible by pathKG06640

NOT suppressed by
Statement
Reference

gig192 has wing margin bristle | somatic clone phenotype, non-suppressible by Tsc129

NOT Enhancer of
Statement
Reference

gig192 is a non-enhancer of wing margin bristle | somatic clone phenotype of Tsc129

Suppressor of
Statement
Reference

Tsc129, Tsc1[+], gig[+], gig192 is a suppressor of wing phenotype of pathKG06640

NOT Suppressor of
Statement
Reference

gig[+]/gig192 is a non-suppressor of macrochaeta phenotype of picPL12c/pic2

gig192 is a non-suppressor of wing margin bristle | somatic clone phenotype of Tsc129

Other
Statement
Reference
Additional Comments
Genetic Interactions
Statement
Reference

The level of ectopic cell death is increased in gig192 mutant clones generated in Rbf120a mutant eye discs.

The ectopic cell death observed in Rbf120a gig192 is completely absent in Rbf120a gig192 S6kl-1 triple mutant cells.

gig192/Rbf15aΔ mutant eye clones are smaller than gig192 mutant eye clones. Adult eyes with gig192/Rbf15aΔ double mutant cones are smaller and display a rough appearance, compared to wild-type eyes. This correlates with an increase in apoptosis in both anterior and posterior (to the morphogenic furrow) clones in double mutant eye discs. This synergistic induction of cell death is also seen in the wing disc.

The presence of a W05014 background significantly decreases gig192/Rbf15aΔ induced cell death. Some cell death is still observed, particularly in the anterior of the eye disc.

The presence of a Nc1 background significantly decreases gig192/Rbf15aΔ induced cell death in the posterior (the differentiating part of the eye disc). However Nc1 has little effect on cell death of gig192/Rbf15aΔ clones in the anterior, the proliferating part of the eye disc. These triple mutants exhibit an increase in mutant tissue in the eye as well as their overall size.

The presence of an E2fi2 background significantly decreases gig192/Rbf15aΔ induced cell death in the eye. In addition, much larger gig192/Rbf15aΔ double mutant clones are observed in adult eyes.

The presence of a S6kl-1 background significantly decreases gig192/Rbf15aΔ induced cell death in the eye. In addition, much larger gig192/Rbf15aΔ double mutant clones are observed in adult eyes.

Tsc129 gig192 double mutants carrying both Tsc1S533A.Tub and gig4A.αTub are viable and normal in size, although they show a slight reduction in lipid levels compared to wild type.

Heterozygosity for gig192 substantially suppresses the late eclosion phenotype and the semi-lethality of pic2/picPL12c animals, but the bristle defects caused by pic2/picPL12c are not significantly suppressed by gig192/+.

The induction of autophagy in the fat body of normally fed animals that is caused by expression of Atg1Scer\UAS.cSa under the control of Scer\GAL4hs.PH is significantly reduced if the animals are also carrying gig109/gig192.

gig192 does not protect Df(1)su(s)R194/+ clones in the eye; Df(1)su(s)R194/+ ; gig192 clones are not recovered in the adult eye in animals with mosaic eyes containing two genotypes of cells with respect to RpL36; cells which are Df(1)su(s)R194/+ and cells in which the haplo-insufficiency of Df(1)su(s)R194/+ for RpL36 has been rescued by RpL36+t4 (in a wild-type background the Df(1)su(s)R194/+ clones are eliminated by cell competition and are not seen in the adult eye in these animals). Also, gig192 does not prevent apoptosis of Df(1)su(s)R194/+ cells in the wing.

Tsc129/+, gig192/+ double mutants are slightly larger than wild-type flies.

The pathKG06640 growth and developmentally delayed phenotypes are significantly rescued by the presence of combined heterozygous Tsc129 and gig192 mutations. About 10% of rescued females are able to lay a small number of eggs, some of which can develop into adult flies.

When clonal material in the eye is mutant for both gig192 and pathKG06640 in an otherwise heterozygous animal, the lethal effects of gig192 are suppressed, and about 10% of mutant animals, both males and females, eclose. Their eyes are smaller and bulge less than gig192 mutant eyes.

The large eye phenotype seen in animals in which the head is homozygous for gig192 (induced using the eyFLP system) is not further enhanced if the heads are also homozygous for both scylEP9.85 and chrb180.

The increase in cell size seen in somatic clones of gig192 in the eye is completely suppressed in double mutant somatic clones with S6kl-1. The decrease in cell size seen in somatic clones of S6kl-1 in the eye is completely suppressed in double mutant somatic clones with gig192.

Clones that are homozygous for both gig192 and Tsc129 show an identical phenotype to homozygous clones of either gig192 or Tsc129 alone.

Xenogenetic Interactions
Statement
Reference
Complementation and Rescue Data
Images (0)
Mutant
Wild-type
Stocks (0)
Notes on Origin
Discoverer

Selected as: eye morphology mutant in FRT/FLP screen.

External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 0 )
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (5)
References (21)