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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\skl
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
sickle
Annotation Symbol
CG13701
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0036786
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
sickle (skl) encodes a member of the inhibitor of apoptotic protein antagonists. It is partially involved in the apoptosis of some larval neurons during metamorphosis. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
Recombination map
3-45
RefSeq locus
NT_037436 REGION:18438561..18439942
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (4 terms)
Molecular Function (0 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
involved_in apoptotic process
inferred from direct assay
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:nos; FB:FBgn0002962
involved_in cell death
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:rpr; FB:FBgn0011706
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:grim; FB:FBgn0015946
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
involved_in apoptotic process
non-traceable author statement
Cellular Component (0 terms)
There is no information supporting a Cellular Component term for this gene. (Based on a review of available data on: 2014-06-27 )
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Protein Signatures (InterPro)
    -
    Summaries
    Gene Snapshot
    sickle (skl) encodes a member of the inhibitor of apoptotic protein antagonists. It is partially involved in the apoptosis of some larval neurons during metamorphosis. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
    Gene Group (FlyBase)
    RHG PROTEINS -
    RHG proteins possess a 12 amino acid RHG motif. This motif, also known as the IAP-binding motif (IBM), interacts with the BIR domain of Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) and relieving IAP-mediated caspase inhibition. Over-expression of individual RHG proteins is sufficient to induce apoptosis. (Adapted from FBrf0225510).
    Summary (Interactive Fly)

    novel apoptosis activator - contains an N-terminal inhibitor of apoptosis motif - partially involved in the apoptosis of some larval neurons during metamorphosis

    Gene Model and Products
    Number of Transcripts
    1
    Number of Unique Polypeptides
    1

    Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\skl for information on other features

    To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

    Protein Domains (via Pfam)
    Isoform displayed:
    Pfam protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Protein Domains (via SMART)
    Isoform displayed:
    SMART protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Comments on Gene Model

    Gene model reviewed during 5.46

    Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
    Transcript Data
    Annotated Transcripts
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    RefSeq ID
    Length (nt)
    Assoc. CDS (aa)
    FBtr0075119
    1382
    108
    Additional Transcript Data and Comments
    Reported size (kB)
    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Polypeptide Data
    Annotated Polypeptides
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    Predicted MW (kDa)
    Length (aa)
    Theoretical pI
    RefSeq ID
    GenBank
    FBpp0074885
    11.7
    108
    4.49
    Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

    There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

    Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
    Reported size (kDa)
    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Linkouts
    Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
    Mapped Features

    Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\skl using the Feature Mapper tool.

    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Linkouts
    Expression Data
    Expression Summary Ribbons
    Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
    For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
    Transcript Expression
    in situ
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    antennal primordium

    Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

    central brain primordium

    Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

    visual primordium

    Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

    dorsal head epidermis primordium

    Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

    lateral head epidermis primordium

    Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

    ventral head epidermis primordium

    Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

    Additional Descriptive Data

    skl expression is almost restricted to the embryonic CNS from stage 15. They are almost completely co-localized with grim transcripts and this includes many neuroblasts in the abdominal segments of the CNS.

    After embryonic stage 13, skl expression is mainly restricted to the posterior region of the ventral nerve cord.

    skl expression is induced in pole cells by maternal Tao, but full induction is suppressed in nos+ pole cells.

    skl transcripts are first detected at embryonic stage 11, in a pair of symmetric pair of cell clusters in the dorsal anterior region of the head. By stage 12, a second symmetric pair of skl-positive cell clusters appear on the ventral anterior region of the head. Additionally, skl-positive cell clusters are present in the neurogenic region. Clusters of skl-positive cells are observed in the embryonic brain and ventral nerve cord for the rest of embryogenesis. The overall pattern is similar to that of cells that are expected to die in the nervous system.

    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Polypeptide Expression
    Additional Descriptive Data
    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    Expression Deduced from Reporters
    High-Throughput Expression Data
    Associated Tools

    GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

    View Dmel\skl in GBrowse 2
    RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
    Reference
    See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
    Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
    Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
    External Data and Images
    Linkouts
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
    EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    Images
    FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
    • Stages(s) 9-10
    • Stages(s) 11-12
    • Stages(s) 13-16
    Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
    Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 7 )
    For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
     
    Other relevant insertions
    Transgenic Constructs ( 8 )
    For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
    Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of skl
    Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of skl
    Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 4 )
    Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
    Phenotypes
    Orthologs
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
    No records found.
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
    No records found.
    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
    No records found.
    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
    No records found.
    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
    No records found.
    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
    No records found.
    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
    No records found.
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190J6U )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    AAA Syntenic Ortholog
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Drosophila suzukii
    Spotted wing Drosophila
    Drosophila simulans
    Drosophila sechellia
    Drosophila erecta
    Drosophila yakuba
    Drosophila ananassae
    Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
    Drosophila persimilis
    Drosophila virilis
    Drosophila mojavensis
    Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150GCG )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
    Paralogs
    Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
    No records found.
    Human Disease Associations
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
      Disease Model Summary Ribbon
      Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
      Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
      Human Ortholog
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Interaction
      References
      Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
      Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
      Homo sapiens (Human)
      Gene name
      Score
      OMIM
      OMIM Phenotype
      DO term
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      Functional Complementation Data
      Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
      Interactions
      Summary of Physical Interactions
      Summary of Genetic Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      esyN Network Key:
      Suppression
      Enhancement

      Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      External Data
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Pathways
      Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
      Metabolic Pathways
      External Data
      Linkouts
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
      Chromosome (arm)
      3L
      Recombination map
      3-45
      Cytogenetic map
      Sequence location
      FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Evidence for location
      75C6-75C6
      Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}W05014 and P{lacW}l(3)j14E7j14E7
      Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Notes
      References
      Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
      Location
      Left of (cM)
      Right of (cM)
      Notes
      Stocks and Reagents
      Stocks (5)
      Genomic Clones (19)
       
      cDNA Clones (15)
       

      Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

      cDNA clones, fully sequenced
      BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      BDGP DGC clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of

      Source for identity of: meph CG13701

      Source for database merge of

      Source for merge of: skl BcDNA:RE14076

      Additional comments

      Source for merge of skl BcDNA:RE14076 was a shared cDNA ( date:030728 ).

      Other Comments

      The presence of skl in the Skp complex suggests that, like morgue, it may target th for degradation by the SCF complex.

      skl may be an IAP antagonist and a transducer of apoptotic damage signalling.

      skl may act with other IAP-inhibitory proteins to regulate apoptosis during development.

      Replaced with paper/evidence-based annotation. ha140627.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 38 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
      EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      MARRVEL_MODEL - MARRVEL (model organism gene)
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (9)
      Reported As
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0047166
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (125)