Under control nutrition conditions, the adulthood-only expression of InRUAS.cHa under the combined control of Scer\GAL4C587 and Gal80[ts] does not lead to any significant changes in the number of escort cells in the germarium, as compared to controls.
Expression of InRScer\UAS.cHa under the control of Scer\GAL4phm.PO does not significantly change the number of lipid droplets in the prothoracic gland cells of third instar larvae compared to controls.
Wild type males spend significantly more courtship time with females expressing InRScer\UAS.cHa under the control of Scer\GAL4αTub84B.Switch.PK (upon exposure to RU486), as compared to control females. The same effect on female attractiveness is seen when cuticular hydrocarbons from the aforementioned females are used to "perfume" same-age oenocyte-less flies.
Overexpression of InRScer\UAS.cHa in fat body cell clones under the control of Scer\GAL4αTub84B.PP leads to an enormous fat body cell overgrowth phenotype. This is accompanied by a significant reduction in lipid droplet size compared with wild-type.
Expression of InRScer\UAS.cHa under the control of Scer\GAL4tim.Scer\UAS, dramatically increases sensitivity to oxidative stress. These flies die within 2 days of being challenged with 1mM paraquat. When treated with 0.05-0.1mM paraquat they survive up to 6 days, with the majority showing arrhythmic locomotor behavior.
Expression of InRScer\UAS.cHa under the control of Scer\GAL4Switch1.106, increases sensitivity of behavioral rhythms to paraquat.
Expression of InRScer\UAS.cHa in border cells, driven by Scer\GAL4slbo.2.6 does not affect the formation of the egg chamber apical cap or the migration of the border cell cluster to the oocyte.
Pharate adults expressing InRScer\UAS.cHa under the control of Scer\GAL4phm.PO are 42% of the weight of controls when larvae have been raised in constant light.
Expression of InRScer\UAS.cHa under the control of Scer\GAL4dpp.blk1 results in ectopic bristles and an excess of sensilla trichodea in the most proximal part of the coxa, ectopic bristles in the arista and third antennal segment, ectopic bristles in the capitellum and occasionally in the pedicellum of the haltere and ectopic thorn bristles in the female genitalia.
Flies that express InRScer\UAS.cHa under the control of both Scer\GAL4tin.cBa and Scer\GAL4Scer\UAS.cHa show a consistently low heart rate across all ages compared to wild-type flies. These flies show an increased rate of stress-induced heart failure at the age of one week compared to in wild type. The rate of this heart failure does increase with age, but at a markedly reduced magnitude compared to wild type. These effects are true for both male and female.
Almost all endogenous caspase activation is blocked in InRScer\UAS.cHa; Scer\GAL4GMR.PF eye discs of third instar larvae and 30 hours APF pupae. This is accompanied by an increase in photoreceptor differentiation at both of these stages.
Clones of cells expressing InRScer\UAS.cHa under the control of Scer\GAL4Act5C.PP in the gut, fat body, Malpighian tubules and epidermis are only slightly larger than control cells at the time of larval hatching. After several days of starvation on 20% sucrose, these cells are much larger than adjacent control cells and have a visibly increased DNA content. Gut and fat body cells expressing InRScer\UAS.cHa under the control of Scer\GAL4Act5C.PP continue to replicate their DNA for at least 2-3 days under starvation conditions. Expression of InRScer\UAS.cHa in third larval instar fat body cells under the control of Scer\GAL4Act5C.PP increases the opacity of the cytoplasm, thus promoting nutrient storage. The cytoplasm of the cells contains many more, but much smaller, lipid droplets than neighbouring control cells. Some fed animals expressing InRScer\UAS.cHa under the control of Scer\GAL4Adh.PF survive to the third larval instar and a few viable adults eclose. In contrast, expression of InRScer\UAS.cHa under the control of Scer\GAL4Adh.PF in starved animals results in first instar larvae dying within 3-4 days of hatching (control animals survive 8-9 days). Animals expressing InRScer\UAS.cHa under the control of Scer\GAL4Adh.PF feed poorly, often having no food in their gut, and frequently wander away from their food.
Expression of InRScer\UAS.cHa under the control of Scer\GAL4Act5C.PP in clones results in an increase in cell size and an increase in clone area compared to controls.
InRScer\UAS.cHa when driven by Scer\GAL4ey.PH causes hyperproliferative outgrowth and an increase in cell size in the eye. A relatively normal ommatidial arrangement and architecture are retained.
Expression of InRScer\UAS.cHa under the control of Scer\GAL4ey.PH results in lethality at 25oC and a dramatic increase in ommatidia number in escapers at room temperature.
When expression is driven by Scer\GAL4ey.PH at 25oC lethality results. At room temperature, a few flies survive with over proliferated eyes.