The fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster is a valuable model to unravel mechanisms of innate immunity, in particular in the context of viral infections. RNA interference, and more specifically the small interfering RNA pathway, is a major component of antiviral immunity in drosophila. In addition, the contribution of inducible transcriptional responses to the control of viruses in drosophila and other invertebrates is increasingly recognized. In particular, the recent discovery of a STING-IKKβ-Relish signalling cassette in drosophila has confirmed that NF-κB transcription factors play an important role in the control of viral infections, in addition to bacterial and fungal infections. Here, we review recent developments in the field, which begin to shed light on the mechanisms involved in sensing of viral infections and in signalling leading to production of antiviral effectors.