Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) is a debilitating disorder that manifests as problematic patterns of alcohol use. At the core of AUD's behavioral manifestations are the profound structural, physiological, cellular, and molecular effects of alcohol on the brain. While the field has made considerable progress in understanding the neuromolecular targets of alcohol we still lack a comprehensive understanding of alcohol's actions and effective treatment strategies. Drosophila melanogaster is a powerful model for investigating the neuromolecular targets of alcohol because flies model many of the core behavioral elements of AUD and offer a rich genetic toolkit to precisely reveal the in vivo molecular actions of alcohol. In this review, we focus on receptors and channels that are often targeted by alcohol within the brain. We discuss the general roles of these proteins, their role in alcohol-associated behaviors across species, and propose ways in which Drosophila models can help advance the field.