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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\rl1
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
FlyBase ID
FBal0014587
Feature type
allele
Associated gene
Associated Insertion(s)
Carried in Construct
Mutagen
Nature of the Allele
Mutations Mapped to the Genome
 
Type
Location
Additional Notes
References
Associated Sequence Data
DNA sequence
Protein sequence
 
 
Progenitor genotype
Cytology
Nature of the lesion
Statement
Reference
Carried on aberration
Expression Data
Reporter Expression
Additional Information
Statement
Reference
 
Marker for
Reflects expression of
Reporter construct used in assay
Human Disease Associations
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
 

One copy of rl1 ameliorates the size defects seen in Nf1E2 mutant flies when in combination with phl12/+.

Phenotypic Data
Phenotypic Class
Phenotype Manifest In
Detailed Description
Statement
Reference

rl1/rl10 mutant third instar larvae have significantly reduced concentration of circulating hemocytes compared to wild-type controls, in rl1 heterozygotes the hemocyte levels are normal.

rl1 mutant third instar larvae display an aberrant innervation pattern in abdominal body-wall muscles 13 (M13) and 12 (M12) neuromuscular junctions: ectopic targetting of type III axons to M13 (also observed in heterozygous mutants) as well as premature defasciculation of axon bundles at the boundary between M13 and M12.

rl1 mutant adults display a rough eye phenotype (due to missing photoreceptor cells).

rl1 mutants do not exhibit any NMJ defects.

rl1/rl1 wings are smaller, with thinner veins, creased and droopy compared to controls.

rl1 homozygotes display a slight deletion of the mid-section of the L4 wing vein that is not fully penetrant, and a weak rough eye phenotype.

Homozygous adults have a rough eye phenotype.

rl1/rl1 flies have significantly smaller eyes and show a significant decrease in the number of R cells per ommatidium, and the L4 wing vein shows stretches of thinner diameter or interruptions, compared to wild type.

Homozygotes have a mild rough eye phenotype and show loss of wing vein material.

Evoked excitatory junction potentials at neuromuscular junctions are decreased in rl1 homozygous larvae.

Homozygotes have a rough eye phenotype, with fewer rhabdomeres per ommatidium (6.04 +/- 1.09) compared to wild type (6.99 +/- 0.07). The number of cone cells is reduced at the pupal stage compared to wild type and the development of the eye is disordered at the third larval instar.

Homozygotes often have gaps in wing vein 4.

Homozygotes have rolled and frayed wing blades.

rl1/rl10a legs show a complete lack of bracts.

Wing vein L4 is thinned or disrupted distal to the posterior crossvein.

Approximately 88% of rl1/Df(2R)PRF hemizygotes eclose compared to their heterozygous siblings at 18oC. Surviving adults have reduced eyes, rolled wings which may be blistered and defects in wing veins L3, L4 and L5.

The extra wing vein and eye phenotypes of rlSu23/+ flies are significantly enhanced by rl1. rlSu14/rl1 flies occasionally have extra wing vein material.

rl1 in transheterozygous combination with rl41-1, rlA3-2, rl21-1, rlZ3, rlZ7 or rl19 produces flies with rough eyes and bent wings.

Mild impact on R7 formation: 22% of ommatidia lack R7 cells. Double mutants with sl1 or sl2 show phenotypes very close to that of rl1 alone.

Hypersensitivity to oxidative stress (paraquat) and ionising radiation.

rl1 hemizygotes have rough eyes and bent down wings. Sections through the eye reveal a lack of most R7 cells and a reduced number of outer photoreceptor cells. A central portion of the L4 wing vein is missing.

rl1/Df(2R)rl10a strongly enhances the wing phenotype of Egfrt1/Egfrf37, N55e11/+ and vvlM3, and of alleles of ast, rho, vn, Vno, tt, and Abruptex alleles of N. rl1/Df(2R)rl10a suppresses the wing phenotype of EgfrE3 and of alleles of Ras64B, ci, net and px.

Mutation has no effect on rhohs.sev rough eye phenotype.

viable, RK2. wing edges rolled downward; margins somewhat frayed; L4 interrupted distal to posterior crossvein. Eyes small, dark and rough. Most extreme at 26oC, less extreme above and below that temperature (Lakovaara, 1963). Temperature sensitive period for eye phenotype during larval stages with most sensitive stage about 60 hr after hatching, i.e., at the beginning of the third instar (Hackman and Lakovaara, 1966). Effects of dosage of rl and rl+ on eye pigment deposition investigated by Lakovaara (1966).

External Data
Interactions
Show genetic interaction network for Enhancers & Suppressors
Phenotypic Class
Enhanced by
Statement
Reference

rl1 has visible phenotype, enhanceable by dj-1βΔ93/dj-1βΔ93

rl1 has visible phenotype, enhanceable by mago1/mago[+]

rl1 has visible phenotype, enhanceable by mago3/mago[+]

rl1 has visible phenotype, enhanceable by msk[+]/msk2

rl1 has visible phenotype, enhanceable by msk[+]/msk5

rl1 has visible phenotype, enhanceable by msk1/msk[+]

rl1/Df(2R)PRF has visible phenotype, enhanceable by Su(var)205205/Su(var)205[+]

rl1/Df(2R)PRF has lethal phenotype, enhanceable by Su(var)205205/Su(var)205[+]

rl13R/rl1 has visible phenotype, enhanceable by cnksag13L/sag[+]

rl1 has visible phenotype, enhanceable by Egfrt1

NOT Enhanced by
Statement
Reference

rl1 has neuroanatomy defective | third instar larval stage phenotype, non-enhanceable by Galphaq[+]/Gαq1

Suppressed by
Statement
Reference
Enhancer of
NOT Enhancer of
Statement
Reference
Suppressor of
NOT Suppressor of
Statement
Reference

rl[+]/rl1 is a non-suppressor of visible phenotype of Scer\GAL4en-e16E, kermitGS2053

rl1/rl+ is a non-suppressor of lethal phenotype of slprBS06

Phenotype Manifest In
Enhanced by
Statement
Reference

rl1 has axon | third instar larval stage phenotype, enhanceable by Cdk23/Cdk2[+]

rl1 has axon | third instar larval stage phenotype, enhanceable by Gp93EY06213/Gp93[+]

rl1 has eye phenotype, enhanceable by Usp47Δ1

rl1 has eye phenotype, enhanceable by Usp47Δ2

rl1 has wing vein L4 phenotype, enhanceable by CG11266[+]/Caperf07714

rl1 has eye phenotype, enhanceable by CG11266[+]/Caperf07714

rl1 has wing vein L4 phenotype, enhanceable by Prp19[+]/Prp19CE162

rl1 has eye phenotype, enhanceable by Prp19[+]/Prp19CE162

rl1 has eye phenotype, enhanceable by dj-1βΔ93/dj-1βΔ93

rl1 has wing vein L4 phenotype, enhanceable by dj-1βΔ93/dj-1βΔ93

rl1 has eye phenotype, enhanceable by mago1/mago[+]

rl1 has wing vein phenotype, enhanceable by mago1/mago[+]

rl1 has eye phenotype, enhanceable by mago3/mago[+]

rl1 has wing vein phenotype, enhanceable by mago3/mago[+]

rl1 has wing vein L4 phenotype, enhanceable by msk[+]/msk2

rl1 has wing vein L4 phenotype, enhanceable by msk[+]/msk5

rl1 has wing vein L4 phenotype, enhanceable by msk1/msk[+]

rl1 has eye phenotype, enhanceable by Su(var)205205/Su(var)205[+]

rl1 has wing vein L3 phenotype, enhanceable by Su(var)205205/Su(var)205[+]

rl1 has wing vein L5 phenotype, enhanceable by Su(var)205205/Su(var)205[+]

rl1 has wing phenotype, enhanceable by Su(var)205205/Su(var)205[+]

rl13R/rl1 has eye phenotype, enhanceable by cnksag13L/sag[+]

rl1 has ocellus phenotype, enhanceable by Egfrt1

rl1 has adult head & microchaeta phenotype, enhanceable by Egfrt1

rl1 has wing phenotype, enhanceable by Egfrt1

rl1 has prothoracic leg phenotype, enhanceable by Egfrt1

NOT Enhanced by
Statement
Reference

rl1 has axon | third instar larval stage phenotype, non-enhanceable by Galphaq[+]/Gαq1

Suppressed by
Statement
Reference

rl1 has phenotype, suppressible by bs03267

NOT suppressed by
Statement
Reference

rl1 has phenotype, non-suppressible by su(Hw)2

Enhancer of
Statement
Reference

rl1/rl+ is an enhancer of axon | third instar larval stage phenotype of Cdk23

rl1 is an enhancer of wing phenotype of asp1

rl1 is an enhancer of eye phenotype of aspDD3

rl1 is an enhancer of wing phenotype of aspDD3

rl1 is an enhancer of eye phenotype of asp1

rl1 is an enhancer of phenotype of gro1

NOT Enhancer of
Statement
Reference

rl[+]/rl1 is a non-enhancer of wing hair phenotype of Scer\GAL4en-e16E, kermitGS2053

rl1 is a non-enhancer of phenotype of Doa7/DoaHD

rl1 is a non-enhancer of phenotype of DoaHD/DoaDem

Suppressor of
Statement
Reference
NOT Suppressor of
Statement
Reference

rl[+]/rl1 is a non-suppressor of wing hair phenotype of Scer\GAL4en-e16E, kermitGS2053

rl1/rl1 is a non-suppressor of axon & motor neuron | larval stage phenotype of Atg13

rl1 is a non-suppressor of phenotype of Doa7/DoaHD

rl1 is a non-suppressor of phenotype of DoaHD/DoaDem

Other
Statement
Reference
Additional Comments
Genetic Interactions
Statement
Reference

The increased concentration of circulating hemocytes characteristic for Graf1/Y mutant third instar larvae is partially suppressible by combination with a single copy of rl1; combination with rl1/rl10 reduces the hemocyte levels in Graf1/Y larvae to below wild-type levels, comparable to those seen in rl1/rl10 single mutants.

The increased frequency of aberrant type III axon innervation patterns in body-wall muscle 13 of third instar larvae single heterozygous for rl1 is further enhanced by heterozygosity for either Cdk23 or Gp93EY06213 but not Gαq1, each of these single heterozygotes on their own also display type III axon targeting defects.

The rough eye phenotype characteristic for rl1 mutant adults is exacerbated further by combination with either Usp47Δ1 or Usp47Δ2.

CG11266f07714/+ or Prp19CE162/+ enhance the L4 wing vein deletion and rough eye phenotypes of rl1 homozygotes.

One copy of rl1 suppresses the enhanced lethality seen when flies expressing RetMEN2B.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4ptc-559.1 are treated with AD58.

One copy of rl1 further suppresses the rescuing effect of AD57 on the lethality of flies expressing RetMEN2B.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4ptc-559.1.

One copy of rl1 has no effect on the viability of flies expressing RetMEN2B.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4ptc-559.1 treated with AZD-6244.

One copy of rl1 suppresses the wing pattern and ectopic wing vein phenotypes seen when RetMEN2B.Scer\UAS is expressed under the control of Scer\GAL4C-765.

One copy of rl1 further suppresses the enhanced wing pattern and ectopic wing vein phenotypes seen when flies expressing RetMEN2B.Scer\UAS is expressed under the control of Scer\GAL4C-765 are treated with AD58.

One copy of rl1 suppresses the rescuing effect of AD57 on the wing pattern and ectopic wing vein phenotypes seen when RetMEN2B.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4C-765.

One copy of rl1 has no effect on the rescuing effect of AD80 or AD81 on the lethality of flies expressing RetMEN2B.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4ptc-559.1.

One copy of rl1 partially suppresses the percentage of sl2 mutant ommatidia that contain extra R7 photoreceptors.

dj-1βΔ93/dj-1βΔ93 significantly enhances eye and L4 wing vein phenotypes in rl1/rl1 flies.

The extra wing vein phenotype seen in EgfrE1/+ flies is dominantly suppressed by rl1.

The loss of wing veins and rough eye phenotype seen in rl1 homozygotes is dominantly enhanced by mago1 and by mago3.

rl1/+ does not suppress the lethality of slprBS06/Y males.

The structural defects seen in the neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) of Atg13 homozygous larvae are almost completely suppressed by rl1/rl1 : synaptic density and apposition of pre and post synaptic components are restored and NMJ size is partially restored. Despite the fact that evoked excitatory junction potentials at larval NMJs are decreased in both rl1 homozygous and Atg13 homozygous larvae, this phenotype is not see in rl1 Atg13 double homozygotes.

The accumulation of synaptic material in the axons of of motor neurons in Atg13 homozygous larvae is not suppressed by rl1/rl1.

The rough eye phenotype, irregular ommatidial array and increased photoreceptor cell number caused by expression of Gef26EP388 under the control of Scer\GAL4GMR.PF are strongly suppressed by rl1/+.

Enhancing effect of msk1 and msk2 on the rl1 phenotype is marked and that of msk5 is dramatic.

The rate of eclosion of rl1/Df(2R)PRF flies at 18oC is nearly halved by the presence of Su(var)205205. The eye and wing defects of surviving adults are enhanced.

The eye phenotype of rl1/rl13R flies is dominantly enhanced by sag13L.

rl1 recessively enhances the eye and wing defects associated with the asp1/aspDD3 mutant. The brain neuroblast mitotic index of double mutants with asp1 is generally as for asp1 mutants alone. The rl1; asp1 double mutant also displays an increase in the number of mitotic figures that show lagging chromatids at anaphase, and a low frequency of abnormal mitotic figures where the telomeric ends of chromosomes appear to remain in contact, forming daisy chains. The frequency of aneuploid and polyploid figures is significantly increased compared to asp1 single mutants.

Egfrt1 enhances the bristle, ocellar, wing and limb phenotypes of homozygotes. Bristle hyperplasia, ocellus enlargement and ocellus fusion are enhanced. Wings are notched, wing margins are hairier and have ectopic vein material. Legs are fused and bifurcated.

rl1/rl10 suppresses the mutant phenotype of embryos derived from tor11D mothers. Double mutants of rl1 and Egfrf11 show disruption of the longitudinal vein L4.

Xenogenetic Interactions
Statement
Reference

rl1 partially suppresses the external eye phenotype and photoreceptor degeneration seen when Hsap\ATXN182Q.Scer\UAS is expressed under the control of Scer\GAL4GMR.PF. The progressive impairment of motor performance and reduction in lifespan seen when Hsap\ATXN182Q.Scer\UAS is expressed under the control of Scer\GAL4nrv2.PS are also partially rescued.

Complementation and Rescue Data
Comments

Scer\GAL4elav-C155-driven expression of rlScer\UAS.cKa efficiently rescues the ectopic targetting of type III axons to the abdominal body-wall muscle 13 but fails to rescue the premature defasciculation of axons bundles at the boundary between muscles 13 and 12 in rl1 mutant third instar larvae. Scer\GAL4Mef2.PU-controlled expression significantly improves both of these innervation defects.

rl1 lethal in combination with all lethal alleles except rl6, with which it is fully viable and exhibits a rl phenotype.

Images (0)
Mutant
Wild-type
Stocks (6)
Notes on Origin
Discoverer

Bridges, 23rd June 1922.

Comments
Comments

Weak rl allele.

Phenotypes of rl mutants fall into an allelic series: Df(2R)rl10a/rl1 >= rl9/rl1 > rlla8/rl1 > rl10/rl1 > rl1/rl1.

External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 0 )
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (3)
References (43)