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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\ewg
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
erect wing
Annotation Symbol
CG3114
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0005427
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
erect wing (ewg) encodes a transcription factor that is essential for synaptic growth at neuromuscular junctions, specification of photoreceptor subtypes, and formation of indirect flight muscles. ewg product has also been linked to the Hippo and Wingless pathways and serves as a major target of the RNA-binding protein encoded by elav. [Date last reviewed: 2018-09-13] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

EC3, EG:BACR37P7.7 , l(1)EC3, l(1)1Ag

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:268,509..279,718 [-]
Recombination map
1-0
RefSeq locus
NC_004354 REGION:268509..279718
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (11 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
enables DNA binding
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001838773
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001838773
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (7 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:pan; FB:FBgn0085432
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001838773
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in nucleus
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in nucleus
traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001838773
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the NRF1/Ewg family. (Q24312)
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
erect wing (ewg) encodes a transcription factor that is essential for synaptic growth at neuromuscular junctions, specification of photoreceptor subtypes, and formation of indirect flight muscles. ewg product has also been linked to the Hippo and Wingless pathways and serves as a major target of the RNA-binding protein encoded by elav. [Date last reviewed: 2018-09-13]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
OTHER DNA BINDING DOMAIN TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
The Other DNA binding domain transcription factors group is a collection of DNA-binding transcription factors that do not fit into any of the other major domain-based transcription factor groups.
Pathway (FlyBase)
Positive Regulators of Wnt-TCF Signaling Pathway -
Positive regulators of Wnt-TCF (canonical Wnt) signaling up-regulate the pathway, resulting in the enhancement of transcriptional regulation mediated by β-catenin (arm).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
May function as a positive regulator of transcription in developing and differentiated neurons, regulating common aspects of neuronal differentiation and maintenance. Requirement in the CNS may be higher than in the peripheral system. Vital for development of the indirect flight muscles.
(UniProt, Q24312)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
ewg: erect wing (J.C. Hall)
Viable allele causes wings to be held upright; wing posture phenotype shows incomplete penetrance. Dorso-ventral flight muscles often absent, especially when the mutation is heterozygous with a deficiency. Ultrastructure of tergal depressor of trochanter jump muscle normal. Flies hemizygous for lethal alleles die either just prior to hatching of the larva from the egg or immediately thereafter; mosaic analysis of certain lethal alleles suggests primary defect in developing muscles; however, in situ studies of transcription reveal that expression is confined to the nervous system and not the muscles (Fleming et al., 1989).
Summary (Interactive Fly)

nuclear respiratory factor-1 transcription factor - regulates synaptic growth - regulates spatio-temporal coordination of cell cycle exit, fusion and differentiation of adult muscle precursors

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
13
Number of Unique Polypeptides
12

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\ewg for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.41

Unconventional translation start (CUG) postulated; FBrf0059052.

Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.

Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.

Gene model reviewed during 5.46

Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated

Multiphase exon postulated: exon reading frame differs in alternative transcripts.

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0089442
4807
733
FBtr0089441
4042
840
FBtr0100577
3423
733
FBtr0100578
3497
581
FBtr0100579
3461
699
FBtr0100580
2961
579
FBtr0100581
2999
545
FBtr0100582
3035
427
FBtr0308208
3589
689
FBtr0308209
4051
843
FBtr0332976
4025
828
FBtr0332977
3926
795
FBtr0332978
4140
343
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

6.0, 5.2, 5.1, 4.3, 3.7 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0088457
77.8
733
4.98
FBpp0088456
88.5
840
6.51
FBpp0100032
77.8
733
4.98
FBpp0100033
62.2
581
7.79
FBpp0100034
74.5
699
5.78
FBpp0100035
61.8
579
4.53
FBpp0100036
58.5
545
4.86
FBpp0100037
46.3
427
8.44
FBpp0300528
72.8
689
5.99
FBpp0300529
88.7
843
6.51
FBpp0305192
87.2
828
6.74
FBpp0305193
83.9
795
6.64
FBpp0305194
36.5
343
7.45
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

733 aa isoforms: ewg-PA, ewg-PC
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

733 (aa); 116 (kD observed)

Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Homodimer. Binds DNA as a dimer (By similarity).

(UniProt, Q24312)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\ewg using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in nucleus
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\ewg in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 29 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 32 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of ewg
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of ewg
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 39 )
Inferred from experimentation ( 39 )
Gene not duplicated in
Inferred from location ( 0 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
2  
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
5 of 13
Yes
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
6 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (1)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
No records found.
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091905UX )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091502P1 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W02GD )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X02DX )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0BDT )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (2)
3 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 2 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Dmel gene
    Ortholog showing functional complementation
    Supporting References
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Homodimer. Binds DNA as a dimer (By similarity).
    (UniProt, Q24312 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Positive Regulators of Wnt-TCF Signaling Pathway -
    Positive regulators of Wnt-TCF (canonical Wnt) signaling up-regulate the pathway, resulting in the enhancement of transcriptional regulation mediated by β-catenin (arm).
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    X
    Recombination map
    1-0
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    X:268,509..279,718 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    1A1-1A1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}CG17896EP1320&P{EP}EP1398 and P{EP}svrEP356&P{EP}argEP452
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    1A8-1A8
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    1A8-1B1
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (25)
    Genomic Clones (14)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (117)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of

    Source for identity of: ewg CG3114

    Source for identity of: ewg NRF-1

    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments
    Other Comments

    elav may increase splicing efficiency of ewg transcripts in alternatively spliced regions.

    The enrichment of the 116kD ewg gene product is enriched in the head due to tissue-specific alternate and inefficient splicing, not by transcriptional regulation. The distinction is biologically relevant: an increased level of the 116kD ewg gene product outside the nervous system causes lethality.

    ewg is required in the myoblasts for indirect flight muscle (IFM) development, this requirement is independent of the requirement or expression of ewg in the nervous system.

    Expression in the nervous system can rescue the embryonic lethality of ewg mutants but not the adult muscle defects. Expression from a heat shock promoter can restore IFM defects.

    Mutations in ewg cause an early patterning defect and degeneration of the indirect flight muscles (IFM) at the onset of their differentiation. The developmental defects can be rescued by heat induced expression of ewg.

    Protein encoded by the ewg open reading frame is sufficient to provide both the embryonic function and the requirement for the formation of indirect flight muscles.

    ewg+ has been localized to an 11.5kb genomic fragment by P element mediated rescue of ewg lethal mutations. In direction of increasing cytology: anon-1Aa? ewg?

    Analysis of ewg lethal embryos and adult mosaics suggests that ewg is required in the CNS and muscles for their correct development.

    Viable alleles cause wings to be held upright; wing posture phenotype shows incomplete penetrance. Dorso-ventral flight muscles often absent, especially when the mutation is heterozygous with a deficiency. Ultrastructure of tergal depressor of trochanter jump muscle normal. Flies hemizygous for lethal alleles die either just prior to hatching of the larva from the egg or immediately thereafter; mosaic analysis of certain lethal alleles suggests primary defect in developing muscles.

    Fate mapping of ewg mutants suggests their primary site of action maps to the ventral thoracic region of the blastoderm.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 83 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (17)
    Reported As
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0000609
    • FBgn0001600
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (148)