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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\zld
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
zelda
Annotation Symbol
CG12701
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0259789
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
zelda (zld) encodes a zinc finger transcription factor that functions in early blastoderm development. It works as a zygotic genome activator because it has a global role in regulating early expressed genes, such as genes essential for cellularization, sex determination and pattern formation. It is also required at later times in development. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-21] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

vfl, vielfaltig, EP1344

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
Recombination map
1-64
RefSeq locus
NC_004354 REGION:19766465..19783548
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (17 terms)
Molecular Function (7 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:bi; FB:FBgn0000179
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002811836
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002811836
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (7 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
involved_in cellularization
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in mitotic cell cycle
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002811836
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
colocalizes_with chromatin
inferred from direct assay
located_in nucleoplasm
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
is_active_in nucleus
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002811836
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
zelda (zld) encodes a zinc finger transcription factor that functions in early blastoderm development. It works as a zygotic genome activator because it has a global role in regulating early expressed genes, such as genes essential for cellularization, sex determination and pattern formation. It is also required at later times in development. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-21]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
C2H2 ZINC FINGER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
Zinc finger C2H2 transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription. They possess DNA-binding domains that are formed from repeated Cys2His2 zinc finger motifs. (Adapted from PMID:1835093, FBrf0220103 and FBrf0155739).
Summary (Interactive Fly)

zinc finger transcription factor - functions in the cellular blastoderm to activate many genes essential for cellularization, sex determination and pattern formation

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
5
Number of Unique Polypeptides
3

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\zld for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.55

Gene model reviewed during 5.45

Gene model reviewed during 5.48

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.56

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0074808
7562
1596
FBtr0074807
7217
1596
FBtr0307537
8011
1373
FBtr0344733
5919
1367
FBtr0345014
7157
1596
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0074577
170.3
1596
6.55
FBpp0074576
170.3
1596
6.55
FBpp0300192
146.1
1373
6.90
FBpp0311065
145.3
1367
6.79
FBpp0311265
170.3
1596
6.55
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

1596 aa isoforms: zld-PA, zld-PB, zld-PG
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\zld using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism | ubiquitous

Comment: maternally deposited

RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
wing disc

Comment: isoforms zld-RD, zld-RB, zld-RF

organism | restricted

Comment: excludes wing discs; isoforms zld-RD, zld-RB, zld-RF

Additional Descriptive Data

zld isoforms zld-RB, zld-RD, and zld-RF can be detected by RT-PCR in wing discs, and in larval tissues other than wing discs; zld-RA is not detected at this stage.

The CNS and brain expression resemble nuclear dots, consistent with a probe detection of pre-spliced nuclear RNA corresponding to zld transcript zld-RD (FBtr0307537). In contrast, the imaginal disc expression appears to be cytoplasmic, likely corresponding to transcript zld-RB (FBtr0074807).

During stage 12, both anterior midline glial cells and posterior midline glial cells continue to express zld transcript zld-RB, while two midline neurons express zld-RD. At stages 15 and 16, all zld-expressing cells express zld-RD, including iVUM4 (VUM interneuron), mVUM4 (VUM motor neuron), and median neuroblast MNB interneurons (MNB progeny).

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

zld protein is detected in embryos as early as nuclear cycle 2, and appears to accumulate to higher levels in blastoderm embryos. Protein levels appears to increase substantially during the second hour of development, coincident with the activation of the zygotic genome.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
colocalizes_with chromatin
inferred from direct assay
located_in nucleoplasm
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\zld in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 25 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 19 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of zld
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of zld
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 1 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (6)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
1 of 15
Yes
No
1  
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (7)
1 of 13
Yes
No
1 of 13
Yes
No
1 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
Yes
No
1 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
Yes
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
1 of 12
Yes
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (17)
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (6)
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
1 of 12
Yes
No
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091903BI )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091500QT )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0CGC )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0CE4 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (34)
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    X
    Recombination map
    1-64
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    18F-18F
    Left limit from in situ hybridisation (FBrf0108529) Right limit from in situ hybridisation (FBrf0108529)
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    18F1-18F2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    18F-18F
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (14)
    Genomic Clones (19)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (87)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of

    Source for identity of: vfl CG12701

    Source for identity of: zld vfl

    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: vfl l(1)G0353 l(1)G0225 l(1)G0427 EP1344

    Additional comments

    Renamed from 'vfl' ('vielfaltig') to 'zld' ('zelda') to reflect clear usage preference in the published literature.

    The vfl gene may have been derived from the CG11902 gene by retroposition.

    FlyBase curator comment: Correspondence with authors Liang and Rushlow revealed that 'zld' = 'CG12701'.

    "l(1)G0353" may affect "CG12701".

    "l(1)G0062" may affect "CG12701". "l(1)G0120" may affect "CG12701". "l(1)G0150" may affect "CG12701". "l(1)G0209" may affect "CG12701". "l(1)G0223" may affect "CG12701". "l(1)G0353" may affect "CG12701". "l(1)G0225" may affect "CG12701".

    "l(1)G0225" may affect "CG12701".

    "l(1)G0427" may affect "CG12701".

    Other Comments
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology

    The fullname 'zelda' is itself an acronym for 'zinc finger early drosophila activator'.

    For reasons apparent from the mutant phenotype, the gene is named "vielfaltig" (German for versatile or manifold).

    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 53 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
    EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    MARRVEL_MODEL - MARRVEL (model organism gene)
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (21)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    EP1344
    l(1)G0225
    l(1)G0353
    l(1)G0427
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0028317
    • FBgn0031071
    • FBgn0040186
    • FBgn0027202
    • FBgn0043370
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (172)