This review outlines the known cellular pathways and mechanisms involved in Drosophila age-dependent immunity to pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi. We discuss the implication of host signaling pathways such as the Toll, Immune Deficiency (IMD), Janus kinase signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT), and Insulin/Insulin Growth Factor/Target of Rapamycin (IIS/TOR) on immune function with aging. Additionally, we review the effects that factors such as sexual dimorphism, environmental stress, and cellular physiology exert on age-dependent immunity in Drosophila. We discuss potential tradeoffs between heightened immune function and longevity in the absence of infection, and we provide detailed tables outlining the various assays and pathogens used in the cited studies, as well as the age, sex, and strains of Drosophila used. We also discuss the overlapping effects these pathways and mechanisms have on one another. We highlight the great utility of Drosophila as a model organism and the importance of a greater focus on age-dependent antiviral immunity for future studies.