transcription factor - zinc finger - required globally for segmental identity throughout the entire trunk - required for identity of the anterior prothorax - required for the subdivision of midgut mesoderm acting in partnership with the homeotics - Restricted teashirt expression confers eye-specific responsiveness to Dpp and Wg signals during eye specification
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.44
There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene
993 (aa); 106 (kD)
Several isoforms of tsh protein are observed on gels. The smaller 116kD form was determined to be a hypophosphorylated form.The phosphorylated forms have apparent molecular weights of 120~130kD.
Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\tsh using the Feature Mapper tool.
It appears that the hypophosphorylated form of tsh protein is largely cytoplasmic while the phosphorylated forms are nuclear.
Expression of the tsh protein was detected in stage 15 embryonic Malpighian tubule stellate cells.
tsh protein is expressed in all cells of the second instar eye disc; expression levels are lower in the posterior disc. By late third instar, tsh protein is expressed in the eye disc anterior to the morphogenetic furrow, but not in the anterior-most part of the eye disc, where it contacts the antennal disc.
tsh protein is expressed in the presumptive notum region of the wing disc and repressed in the presumptive wing region
At stages 5-8, the faster, nonphosphorylated tsh protein is detected in the region of the first three thoracic and the first abdominal segments as a diffuse signal within the nuclei and cytoplasm of all cells. Between stages 9 and 11, the larger form becomes more apparent. tsh protein becomes highly concentrated in nuclei in the posterior part of each segment. Anteriorly in the segments, it is found both in the nuclei and the cytoplasm and is still diffuse. In later stages, the larger forms are more predominant and staining is high in all nuclei.
GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signalsView Dmel\tsh in GBrowse 2
Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.
For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.
Source for identity of: tsh CG1374
Source for merge of: tsh ae
Complementation tests between tshae-l and various other tsh alleles define a distinct complementation group though molecular analysis places a tshae-l lesion very close to the 3' end of the tsh transcription unit, between the 3' end of tsh and previously defined regulatory sequences.
tsh is required in undifferentiated cells for eye specification, but its expression must later be turned off to allow retinal differentiation.
dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene and injected into embryos on the dorsal side causes a phenotype at the larval stage. These larvae have no T1 denticle beard and also show a reduced number of denticle rows in the abdominal segments compared to wild type.
Different combinations of the proteins ci, tsh and arm appear to be employed for the specification of naked cuticle at distinct positions both along the anterior posterior axis and within individual trunk segments.
tsh is required for thr formation of proximal leg segments, but has no role in boundary formation.
tsh contributes to the differences in cell-cell adhesion between proximal and distal leg cells.
Targeted expression of tsh in imaginal discs is sufficient to induce ectopic eye formation in non-eye tissues. tsh functions with the other eye specification genes ey, so and dac to specify eye identity.
mod is a genetic target of tsh. A biological role of tsh is to repress mod expression in the ectoderm and this negative control is performed independently of Scr. tsh protein binds to specific DNA sequences within a 5' mod regulatory region that reproduces tsh-dependent expression in the ectoderm.
tsh is necessary for proper formation of anterior and central midgut structures. Antp, Ubx, abd-A, dpp and wg are required for proper tsh expression. The control of tsh by Ubx, abd-A and probably also by Antp is mediated by secreted signaling molecules.
Ectopic expression of dpp eliminates Scr and Antp expression, attenuating abd-A expression, inducing Ubx, dpp, wg and tsh expression in the visceral mesoderm and inducing lab expression in the apposing endoderm. The result is failure of all of the morphogenetic events except formation of midgut constriction 2.
tsh acts in a partially redundant way with certain homeotic complex proteins but co-operates with them for the establishment of specific segment types. The tsh product and homeotic complex proteins regulate common sets of downstream target genes.
In the epidermis tsh is expressed in a parasegmental and then a segmental register whereas in the CNS its expression remains parasegmental. The maintenance of tsh expression in the posterior compartments of trunk segments is dependent on the common function of Antp and the bithorax complex genes. Scr and lab are expressed ectopically in embryos deficient for tsh and Antp. Antp and Ubx act independently of tsh for the determination of trunk identity, although tsh is essential for the complete function of the trunk homeotic genes.
tsh is required for normal development of the cells giving rise to the labial prothoracic region, ventral trunk region and anal opening.
Mutants have outheld wings.
Mohr, 24th Nov. 1926.