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General Information
Symbol
Ctet\tetXTNT-LC.UAS
Species
C. tetani
Name
FlyBase ID
FBal0049205
Feature type
allele
Associated gene
Associated Insertion(s)
Carried in Construct
Also Known As
UAS-TNT, UAS-TeTxLC, UAS-TNT-E, UAS-TnTE, UAS-TNTG, UAS-TeTx, UAS-TNT-G, UAS-TNT-H, TNT-E, UAS-TeTxLC.tnt
Allele class
Nature of the Allele
Allele class
Mutations Mapped to the Genome
 
Type
Location
Additional Notes
References
Associated Sequence Data
DNA sequence
Protein sequence
 
 
Progenitor genotype
Carried in construct
Cytology
Nature of the lesion
Statement
Reference

UASt regulatory sequences drive expression of TNT-LC.

Allele components
Product class / Tool use(s)
Encoded product / tool
Expression Data
Reporter Expression
Additional Information
Statement
Reference
 
Marker for
Reflects expression of
Reporter construct used in assay
Human Disease Associations
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Disease-implicated variant(s)
 
Phenotypic Data
Phenotypic Class
Phenotype Manifest In

aCC neuron & neuromuscular junction, with Scer\GAL4eve.RRC

aCC neuron & synapse, with Scer\GAL4eve.RRC

aCC neuron & synapse, with Scer\GAL4sca-537.4

antennal sense organ & neuron, with Scer\GAL4GH86

chemosensory sensory organ & neuron, with Scer\GAL4GH86

giant fibers & synapse, with Scer\GAL4c17

larval maxillary sense organ & neuron, with Scer\GAL4GH86

monopolar laminar cell & axon, with Scer\GAL4MZ1369

pharyngeal sense organ & neuron, with Scer\GAL4GH86

photoreceptor cell R7 & axon, with Scer\GAL4GMR.PF

photoreceptor cell R7 & axon, with Scer\GAL4MZ1369

photoreceptor cell R8 & axon, with Scer\GAL4GMR.PF

photoreceptor cell R8 & axon, with Scer\GAL4MZ1369

RP2 neuron & synapse, with Scer\GAL4sca-537.4

synapse & aCC neuron, with Scer\GAL4eve.RRK

synapse & RP2 neuron, with Scer\GAL4eve.RRK

Detailed Description
Statement
Reference

Larvae expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4eve.RN2 show complete lack of motor neuron Is neuromuscular junction (NMJ) activity, while motor neuron Ib NMJ activity remains intact. Although the loss of evoked Is activity does not affect muscle contraction, the intersegmental wave activity is elevated and an increased number of waves fail to propagate trough multiple segments.

However, Scer\GAL4eve.RN2-driven expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS does not lead to any significant change in IB basal single-synapse release probability or quantal density compared to controls and high density stimulation reveals normal Ib plasticity.

10 Lux light stimulation evokes a a significantly reduced depolarization in Hsap\RELAAD.R92A10.T:Zzzz\Zip+ Scer\GAL4DBD.R17D06.T:Zzzz\Zip- Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS photoreceptors, compared to wild type.

With low, but not high-intensity moving light patterns Hsap\RELAAD.R92A10.T:Zzzz\Zip+ Scer\GAL4DBD.R17D06.T:Zzzz\Zip- Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS flies exhibit a reduced ability to track moving patterns.

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS in gustatory neurons involved in high-salt detection, under the control of Scer\GAL4sano display wild-type responses to 100mM sucrose, 10mM caffeine and 10mM quinine.

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS in gustatory neurons involved in high-salt detection, under the control of Scer\GAL4sano results in an avoidance defect towards 300mM NaCl.

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4sano results in the same attractive response to both low- and high-salt concentrations.

Blocking synaptic transmission of Tm5a/b/c and Tm20 neurons by expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4ort.C1a significantly reduces the phototactic preference for ultraviolet light over green light in seen in wild type and control flies.

Blocking synaptic transmission in dm8 neurons by expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4ort.C2b significantly reduces the phototactic preference for ultraviolet light over green light seen in wild type and control flies.

Blocking synaptic transmission in Tm5a/b neurons by expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of either Hsim\VP16AD.ET18k.T:Zzzz\ZipEERRL,T:SV40\nls2 or Hsim\VP16AD.ET24g.T:Zzzz\ZipEERRL,T:SV40\nls2 does not significantly reduce the phototactic preference for ultraviolet light over green light seen in wild type and control flies.

Blocking synaptic transmission in Tm5c neurons by expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4C1a.DBD.ort.T:Zzzz\ZipRREEL (either one or two copies) and Hsim\VP16AD.VGlut.OK371.T:Zzzz\ZipEERRL,T:SV40\nls2 significantly reduces the phototactic preference for ultraviolet light over green light in seen in wild type and control flies. Additionally silencing Tm5a/b neurons (under the control of either Hsim\VP16AD.ET24g.T:Zzzz\ZipEERRL,T:SV40\nls2 or Hsim\VP16AD.ET18k.T:Zzzz\ZipEERRL,T:SV40\nls2), or dm8 neurons (under the control of Scer\GAL4ort.C2b), does not enhance the UV preference defects. Flies in which Tm5c neurons have been silenced exhibit normal optomotor (head-yaw) responses to horizontally moving strips.

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of either Scer\GAL4ppk.PU or Scer\GAL4cry.PU has no effect on the response of larvae to green light compared to controls (they show low green-light avoidance).

Silencing Tdc-positive neurons by expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4Tdc2.PC at the permissive temperature inhibits post-mating behaviors in mated females, including increased levels of remating, reduced rejection behaviors (ovipositor extrusion) and reduced egg laying. These mated females remain highly attractive to males.

When the output from T4 or T5 neurons is blocked, the responses of postsynaptic lobula plate neurons to moving brightness increments (ON edges; T4 block) or brightness decrements (OFF edges; T5 block) are selectively compromised. The same effects are seen in turning responses of tethered walking flies. T4 neurons are blocked by the expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4GMR54A03, while T5 neurons are blocked by Scer\GAL4GMR42H07>Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS.

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS in HC neurons under the control of Scer\GAL4hot-cell strongly reduces the "rapid negative thermotaxis" seen in wild type flies. Expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4TrpA1-GAL4 has no effect.

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS in Cho neurons, under the control of either Scer\GAL4nan.PK or Scer\GAL4iav.PP, eliminates the sound-induced larval startle response. Expression in class IV da neurons, under the control of Scer\GAL4ppk.1.9 reduces, but does not eliminate the response. By contrast, expression in class I or III da neurons (under the control of Scer\GAL419-12, or Scer\GAL4221) does not affect the startle response to sound.

Flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of either Scer\GAL4Orco.2.642.T:Hsim\VP22 or Scer\GAL4for-11.247 show a normal initial olfactory startle response to a pulse of ethanol vapour, but show reduced habituation of the olfactory startle response compared to wild-type controls.

Flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4P2.4.Pdf show normal habituation of the olfactory startle response.

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4ppk23.2.6 results in a high proportion of non-courting males over a 10 minute observation time in a courtship assay. For those mutant males that do court, the courtship latency is increased and the courtship index is decreased compared to wild-type.

Flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4Trh.PB show reduced flight ability in a cylinder drop test.

Air-puff stimulated flight responses of the dorsal longitudinal indirect flight muscle (DLM) of tethered flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4Trh.PB are different to wild type. In 13/30 cases, no electrophysiological response was seen, while 17/30 flies showed sustained electrophysiological responses similar to controls.

Flightless adults expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4Trh.PB show a small but significant reduction in serotonergic neuron cell number in the second thoracic segment compared to controls.

Male flies with silenced ppk23 cells (through expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4ppk23.2.695) display increased single wing extensions to wild-type males. These flies also exhibit increased courtship latency and decreased wing extensions towards wild-type females.

Flies carrying Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4ppk23.2.695, with fru[M] cells containing Scer\GAL80 (through the presence of Scer\GAL80Ecol\lexAop and Ecol\lexAfru.P1.T:Hsim\VP16) exhibit wild-type courtship to females, with no courtship to males.

Compared to control males, males expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4ppk23.2.336 are slower to initiate courtship of females, court less (assessed by frequency of wing extension) and copulate less. These defects are only seen in courtship assays performed in the dark.

Males expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4ppk23.2.336 show a slight increase in male-male courtship in assays performed under light conditions, but not in the dark. The level of courtship directed towards males is stil well below that of courtship towards females.

Males expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4ppk23.2.336 do not show courtship towards males perfumed with 7,11-heptacosadiene (control males show vigorous courtship towards these perfumed males).

Larvae expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4117Y show a strongly reduced response to gentle touch compared to wild type, although residual touch responses remain.

Larvae expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4109(2)80 in the presence of Scer\GAL80tsh-GAL80 (to reduce expression in the abdominal and thoracic ganglion) show significantly reduced sensitivity to gentle touch compared to wild type.

Larvae expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4c755 in the presence of Scer\GAL80tsh-GAL80 show significantly reduced sensitivity to gentle touch compared to wild type.

Larvae expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of one of Scer\GAL4smid-C161, Scer\GAL41003.3, Scer\GAL4nompC.PP or Scer\GAL4tutl-GAL4 show significantly reduced sensitivity to gentle touch compared to wild type.

Larvae expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of either Scer\GAL42-21 or Scer\GAL4ppk.1.9 show normal sensitivity to gentle touch.

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of either Scer\GAL4GMR91F06 or Scer\GAL4tutl-GAL4 at the restrictive temperature significantly alters navigational behaviour of larvae in response to gentle touch.

Flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4ple.PF show abnormal temperature-preference behaviour; their avoidance index against low temperatures is strongly reduced compared to wild type, while their avoidance index against high temperatures is slightly reduced compared to wild type.

Flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4DAT.PL show abnormal temperature-preference behaviour; their avoidance index against low temperatures and their avoidance index against high temperatures are reduced compared to wild type.

Flies in which the expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4ple.PF is limited (using the temperature sensitive Scer\GAL80ts.αTub84B allele) to the adult stage for 16 hours prior to assaying show normal temperature-preference behaviour.

Inactivation of antennal hot-sensing neurons via expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4hot-cell results in a highly selective loss of behavioural aversion to hot (and not cold) temperatures.

Inactivation of antennal cold-sensing neurons via Scer\GAL4brv1-NP4486-mediated expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS, and restricted to the antenna by using a Scer\FLP1ey.PN-Scer\GAL80αTub84B.PC-based intersectional strategy, results in a highly selective loss of behavioural aversion to cod (and not hot) temperatures.

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of the α/β mushroom body neuron core/surface subset specific driver Scer\GAL4Mrp4-NP6649 reduces ethanol-induced hyperactivity compared to controls. A reduction in hyperactivity is also seen when Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS is expressed under the control of Scer\GAL4NP3208, which expresses in a different subset of α/β neurons.

Larvae expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4iav.PK do not turn their heads in response to vibration, in contrast to wild-type larvae.

Flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4Ir64a.PA show a significant decrease in avoidance to several acids in a T-maze, whereas responses to non-acidic odorants such as benzaldehyde and octan-3 are unaffected compared to wild-type controls.

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of any one of Scer\GAL4NP423, Scer\GAL4NP867 or Scer\GAL4NP394 leads to positive larval phototaxis, whereas controls show negative phototaxis.

Pre-incubation at the restrictive temperature of 30[o]C induces paralysis of flies carrying Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4elav-C155 and Scer\GAL80ts.αTub84B.

The integrity and performance of the mechanical feedback amplification provided by Johnson's Organ neurons is unaffected by expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4elav-C155.

Non-linear, intensity-dependent amplification and nerve responses to pure-tone noise are unaffected by expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4elav-C155.

Ethanol-induced hyperactivity is reduced in flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4ple.PF. These flies also exhibit a significant reduction in locomotor activity. Similarly, locomotor speed achieved at 7.5 minutes of ethanol exposure is reduced in these flies. However, there is no change in the magnitude of the olfactory-mediated locomotor startle response in these flies. Locomotor coordination appears normal in these flies, both by eye and in a negative geotaxis climbing assay, indicating that motor behaviours are grossly normal, and that at least one sensorimotor circuit is fully functional. Ethanol absorption is also unaffected.

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS in Scer\GAL4c346-expressing neurons results in reduced ethanol-induced hyperactivity.

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL43.16, Scer\GAL44.13, Scer\GAL44.69, Scer\GAL411.17, Scer\GAL4lilli-189Y, Scer\GAL4Aph-4-c232, Scer\GAL4c561, Scer\GAL411.33, Scer\GAL411.243, Scer\GAL412.30, Scer\GAL4078Y, Scer\GAL4c42, Scer\GAL4c107, or Scer\GAL4smid-C161 appears to have no effect.

As a result of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS expression under the control of Scer\GAL4Mz19, the relative size of the microglomeruli formed by the clawed dendritic endings of mushroom body Kenyon cells is significantly increased indicating an increase of the synaptic complex size compared with controls. The fraction of Scer\GAL4Mz19-positive microglomeruli is decreased upon expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS.

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4Orco.2.642.T:Hsim\VP22 strongly impairs avoidance of citronellal in a direct airborne repellent test (DART) assay.

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4iav.PK eliminates the ability of larvae to discriminate between 14[o] and 17.5[o]C in a two-way choice test, but the ability to discriminate between 12[o] and 17.5[o]C and between 17.5[o] and 24[o]C is not affected.

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS in octopaminergic and tyraminergic neurons under the control of Scer\GAL4Tdc2.PC does not affect levels of memory performance in heat-box chamber assays.

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS in octopaminergic and tyraminergic neurons under the control of Scer\GAL4Tdc2.PC does not affect locomotor activity compared to wild-type in heat-box walking assays.

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS in octopaminergic and tyraminergic neurons under the control of Scer\GAL4Tdc2.PC does not affect the pre-exposure effect on associative place memory.

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS temporally in the mushroom body and central complex under the control of Scer\GAL4c739, Scer\GAL4Tab2-201Y, Scer\GAL4Aph-4-c232, Scer\GAL4lilli-189Y, Scer\GAL4c819, Scer\GAL4C5, Scer\GAL4c205, Scer\GAL4NP6561 or Scer\GAL4NP6510 with Scer\GAL80ts.αTub84B does not affect the Buridan's paradigm fixation index or walking distance.

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4104Y, Scer\GAL4121Y, Scer\GAL4154Y or Scer\GAL4210Y and Scer\GAL80ts.αTub84B at 31[o]C for 3-5 hours induces defective fixation behavior in a Buridan's paradigm experiment. Most of the flies demonstrate obvious thigmotaxis, i.e., they tend to walk along the edge of the platform and seldom enter the central zone of the platform. Very few flies exhibit a preference for visual targets. The fixation index of flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4104Y is significantly lower than that of the flies without Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS expression.

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4121Y and Scer\GAL80ts.αTub84B at 31[o]C for 3-5 hours results in the flies displaying irregular walking paths and a problem with visual fixation.

Flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4154Y and Scer\GAL80ts.αTub84B at 31[o]C for 3-5 hours exhibit abnormal fixation behavior.

Flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4210Y and Scer\GAL80ts.αTub84B at 31[o]C for 3-5 hours show continuous circling behavior and a preference for the edge of the Buridan's paradigm experimental platform.

Flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4104Y, Scer\GAL4121Y, Scer\GAL4154Y or Scer\GAL4210Y and Scer\GAL80ts.αTub84B at 31[o]C for 3-5 hours causes a dramatic decrease in locomotor activity. These flies show a significantly reduction in total walking distance and walking speed compared with control flies.

Flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4Mef2.247 can master a composite learning task. However, they do not generalise the classical memory to a novel behaviour and show significant operant learning already after 8 minutes of training, indicating that they appear to form habits prematurely. Flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL417d behave similarly to flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4Mef2.247.

Flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4c205 behave similarly to wild type in a composite learning task.

Flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4E49 show a specific defect in the proboscis extension reflex. They respond to 10mM and 100mM sucrose at a frequency comparable to wild type, however, in contrast to wild type, they do not lift the rostrum from the head (the other aspects of the reflex, including tilting the head towards the sugar stimulus and spreading the labella, remain intact).

General locomotor and phototaxis defects as seen when neurons are silenced using Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS driven by Scer\GAL4nan.PK or Scer\GAL4JO15. Gravitaxis defects are seen when expression is driven by Scer\GAL4NP6250 or Scer\GAL4NP6303 but not by Scer\GAL4ph-p-NP1046. Male detection of courtship song (assayed by chain formation in response to exposure to synthesized pulse song) is impaired when expression is driven with Scer\GAL4ph-p-NP1046 but not when driven with Scer\GAL4NP6303 or Scer\GAL4NP6250.

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS using Scer\GAL4Gr66a.PD abolishes the L-canavanine-induced proboscis retraction seen in wild type flies.

Scer\GAL4001 Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS males produce polycyclic songs.

Scer\GAL4071 Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS males produce no song.

Scer\GAL4103 Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS males produce polycyclic songs.

Scer\GAL4113 Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS males produce polycyclic songs.

Scer\GAL4c116 Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS males produce highly polycyclic songs.

Scer\GAL4134 Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS males produce mildly polycyclic songs.

Scer\GAL4169Y Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS males produce polycyclic songs.

Scer\GAL4Tab2-201Y Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS males produce polycyclic songs.

Scer\GAL4c255 Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS males produce polycyclic songs.

Scer\GAL4394 Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS males produce highly polycyclic songs.

Scer\GAL4402 Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS males produce polycyclic songs.

Scer\GAL4c561 Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS males produce mildy polycyclic songs with an abnormally short interpulse interval.

Scer\GAL4C774 Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS males produce polycyclic songs.

Scer\GAL4C800 Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS males produce polycyclic songs.

Scer\GAL4C829 Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS males produce polycyclic songs.

Scer\GAL4Ln Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS flies show no detectable optomotor response. The loss-of-motion responses in these flies persist under all combinations of spatial, temporal, and contrast conditions tested and also in a standard optomotor flight assay in which these flies failed to respond to either progressive (back-to- front) or regressive (front-to-back) motion.

5-day old Scer\GAL80ts.αTub84B Scer\GAL4Ln Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS flies that are shifted to the non-permissive temperature, and then shifted back to the permissive temperature for the test, show an ~80% decrease in optomotor response.

Scer\GAL4Ln Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS flies show stronger positive phototaxic responses to UV, blue, and green light, compared to controls.

Scer\GAL4Ln Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS flies do not exhibit motion-elicited landing reflexes, although they are capable of spontaneous leg extension.

Scer\GAL4c202a Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS flies exhibit reduced motion-elicited landing reflexes.

Scer\GAL421D Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS flies exhibit normal motion-elicited landing reflexes.

In response to a striped pattern that rotates around the anterior-posterior body axis, Scer\GAL4Ln Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS flies do not exhibit the normal head-roll response.

In response to a striped pattern that rotates around the anterior-posterior body axis, Scer\GAL4c202a + Scer\GAL421D Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS flies, or Scer\GAL4[NP5214] Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS flies exhibit the normal head-roll response.

Impairment of mushroom body neuron function through expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS (under the control of any of Scer\GAL4Mef2.247, Scer\GAL4Tab2-201Y, Scer\GAL4lilli-189Y, Scer\GAL417d, Scer\GAL4H24 or Scer\GAL4ey-OK107) results in flies that show defects in temperature preference behavior. Loss of preference for the usual 24-25[o]C is also seen when Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS is expressed in the dorsal paired medial (DPM) (Scer\GAL4c316) or the antennae and antennal lobe (Scer\GAL4Orco.PU, Scer\GAL4GH146, Scer\GAL4GH86 or Scer\GAL4Or22b.PU). No defects are observed when Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS is expressed in the maxillary palp (Scer\GAL4Or33c.PG or Scer\GAL4Or85e.PU), the fan-shaped body (Scer\GAL4OK348, Scer\GAL4104Y, Scer\GAL4NP6510 or Scer\GAL4NP6561), the ellipsoid body (Scer\GAL4Aph-4-c232 or Scer\GAL4Aph-4-c507), clock cells (Scer\GAL4P2.4.Pdf, Scer\GAL4Mz520 or Scer\GAL4dimm-929), the SOG/proboscis (Scer\GAL4MJ63, Scer\GAL4Gr2a.2.240, Scer\GAL4Gr32a.3.776, Scer\GAL4Gr66a.3.153 or Scer\GAL4c290) or in endocrine cells (Scer\GAL4Akh.PG or Scer\GAL4Ilp2.215-3).

Flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4Mef2.247 (restricted to 16 hours expression from day three of adulthood onwards using Scer\GAL80ts.αTub84B) show defects in temperature preference behavior. When flies are then returned to the restrictive temperature for three days the defects are reversed.

Flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS in the αβ, α'β' and γ lobe neurons of the mushroom body under the control of Scer\GAL4238Y (restricted to 16 hours expression from day three of adulthood onwards using Scer\GAL80ts.αTub84B) show an inability to find a preferred temperature, with temperature preference across a wide gradient.

Flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS in the αβ and γ lobe neurons of the mushroom body under the control of Scer\GAL4c747 or Scer\GAL4c309 (restricted to 16 hours expression from day three of adulthood onwards using Scer\GAL80ts.αTub84B) show an inability to find a preferred temperature, with temperature preference across a wide gradient.

Flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS in the αβ lobe neurons of the mushroom body under the control of Scer\GAL4c739 (restricted to 16 hours expression from day three of adulthood onwards using Scer\GAL80ts.αTub84B) show an inability to find a preferred temperature, with temperature preference across a wide gradient.

Flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS in the γ lobe neurons of the mushroom body under the control of Scer\GAL41471 (restricted to 16 hours expression from day three of adulthood onwards using Scer\GAL80ts.αTub84B) do not exhibit any temperature preference defects.

The eclosion of flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4Eh.2.4 under photoperiod conditions lacks the prominent lights-on response seen in control flies. No significant increases in eclosion are seen regardless of when flies are exposed to the lights-on signal.

Approximately 4% of all adult flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4Eh.2.4 fail to inflate their wings, compared to 76% in controls. The time taken for the flies to spread their wings post-eclosion is similar in flies that eclose in response to the lights-on signal, and those that eclose in the dark. This is in contrast to controls, in which inflation occurs more quickly in the dark.

Embryos expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4Gyc-89Da.1.9 show a slightly reduced hatching rate compared to controls. The majority of hatched larvae survive to the end of the third instar and approximately 50% die at about the time of pupariation. The remainder of animals successfully pupariate but die just prior to eclosion. Approximately 40 minutes after ptilinum extension, head inflations start to occur in the mutant animals, as occurs in controls, but the magnitude of the inflations is much weaker than normal and they rarely succeed in completely opening the operculum. Although several head inflations/deflations are seen in the mutant animals and the animals do push forward noticeably, the abdominal peristalsis component of the eclosion program is never initiated. The head inflations/deflations occur for up to 4 more hours, and during this time, starting approximately 1 hour after the first head inflations, the antennae occasionally twitch and the abdomen sporadically contracts several times a minute (but these movements do not resemble the coordinated series of peristaltic contractions seen in controls). The mutant animals do not succeed in escaping the puparium, even if the operculum is removed just prior to the expected time of eclosion. Animals that are removed from the puparia remain immobile, do not show any sign of wing inflation and still have an untanned cuticle after 2 hours.

Third instar larvae expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4Gyc-89Da.1.9 show normal locomotion and growth, but substantial numbers of later third instar larvae are found buried in the food, in contrast to controls. When animals expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4Gyc-89Da.1.9 are raised on petri dishes containing a thin layer of food (approximately 3mm thick) there is no significant difference in the number of animals that successfully pupate between the mutant and control animals.

Embryos expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4Gyc-89Db.3.4 show a reduced hatching rate compared to controls. All animals expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4Gyc-89Db.3.4 die at the transition from first to second larval instar. Newly hatched larvae appear to become increasingly sluggish after a day of feeding on the surface of the food. Most of the 16.8% of larvae that die during the feeding phase are buried under the food. Approximately 80% of the hatched larvae survive through the feeding phase and begin the developmental events that lead to ecdysis. Over 99% of these larvae have transparent fluid-filled double trachea and double vertical plates, and no animals are found with air-filled tracheae or that have initiated pre-ecdysis or ecdysis peristaltic movements.

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4Gyc-89Da.1.9 while using the temperature sensitive Scer\GAL80ts.αTub84B allele to limit Scer\GAL4Gyc-89Da.1.9 activity to particular stages of development shows that expression 24-48 hours after white puparium formation results in the majority of animals failing to eclose, but expression later in development has no effect on the rate of eclosion.

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4Gyc-89Db.3.4 while using the temperature sensitive Scer\GAL80ts.αTub84B allele to limit Scer\GAL4Gyc-89Db.3.4 activity to particular stages of development shows that expression during the first larval instar blocks pupariation, whereas expression during the second and third larval instars results in a greater fraction of animals pupariating, while expression 24-48 hours after white puparium formation results in the majority of animals failing to eclose.

The walking activity levels, walking speed and optomotor response of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS; Scer\GAL80ts.αTub84B; Scer\GAL4007Y flies at 33'C are significantly reduced compared to wild-type controls. These phenotypes are not seen in the same animals at 18'C, or in animals carrying Scer\GAL4Mef2.247 in place of Scer\GAL4007Y.

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS in serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons under the control of Scer\GAL4Ddc.PL leads to defects in memory, but leaves thermosensitivity unchanged.

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS in dopaminergic neurons under the control of Scer\GAL4ple.PF does not affect memory performance nor thermosensitivity.

Expression and suppression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS by Scer\GAL4Ddc.PL and Scer\GAL80ple.PK (i.e expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS only occurs in the serotonergic neurons as it is suppressed in the dopaminergic neurons) results in a strong reduction in memory performance compared to controls.

Males expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4Ddc.PL show very low levels of aggression (measured as fighting frequency), although not significantly different from controls. However, when these animals are treated with 5-hydroxytryptophan, their fighting frequencies do not increase significantly, in contrast to the increase seen in control lines under these conditions.

Males expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4npf.1 have significantly higher fighting frequencies than controls.

Males expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of either Scer\GAL4Or65a.4.7 or Scer\GAL4Or65a.PF and treated with cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVa) do not show an inhibition of initial courtship of mature virgin females (in contrast to wild-type males, which show a reduction in initial courtship of mature virgin females when treated with cVa). Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4Or67d.PE has no effect on the ability of cVa to inhibit initial courtship.

The normal behavioural response to noxious heat is completely abrogated in third instar larvae expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4109(2)80.

Third instar larvae expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4smid-C161 show a small, but statistically significant, delay in their initiation of nocifensive responses to a noxious heat probe compared to controls. The rolling behavioural response does not appear to be as coordinated as in wild type and it takes the larvae longer achieve a complete roll.

Third instar larvae expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL41003.3 show a normal nocifensive response to a noxious heat probe.

Third instar larvae expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4ppk.1.9 show a dramatically impaired nocifensive response to a noxious heat probe compared to wild-type controls.

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of either Scer\GAL4smid-C161 or Scer\GAL4ppk.1.9 impairs the response of larvae to a noxious mechanical stimulus.

Adults expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4ple.PF (these animals also carry Scer\GAL80ts.αTub84B, but it has been inactivated by raising the flies at the restrictive temperature) show no significant difference in the elevated initial activity phase or spontaneous activity phase in an open field arena compared to control flies. However, animals expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4ple.PF show a significantly greater level of activity than control flies following mechanical stimulation.

Flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of one of Scer\GAL4GH86, Scer\GAL4nan.PK or Scer\GAL4wtrw.PL show disrupted hygrosensing behaviour; a higher fraction of flies choose moist air (100% humidity) over dry air (0% humidity) compared to wild-type controls in a hygrosensory behaviour assay after five minutes.

Flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4nompC.PL show normal hygrosensing behaviour.

Targeted expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS driven by Scer\GAL4αTub84B.PP results in dramatic alterations in the architecture of the CSD interneuron (CSDn). The number of ipsilateral branches is greatly increased, while the terminal endings in the contralateral lobe are reduced.

In addition to a profusion of dendritic arbors, Scer\GAL4αTub84B.PP-driven Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS-expressing adult neurons show a reduction in branching of terminal arbors. The defect occurs during development of adult-specific arbors since the larval terminals and pruning are normal.

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4rn-GAL4-14 does not increase the number of satellite boutons found at the synapse compared to controls.

Flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4Or83b.2.642.T:Hsim\VP22 do not show a change in sleep need after exposure to social enrichment, in contrast to control flies which show an increase in sleep requirement after exposure to social enrichment.

Socially enriched flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4ple.PF show an aberrant increase in sleep when exposed to a period of social isolation, in contrast to control socially enriched flies which show a decrease in sleep requirement after exposure to social isolation.

Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS; Scer\GAL4NP1017 adults starved of water for 2 hours show a severely reduced proboscis extension response when their prothoracic legs are exposed to water compared to identically treated controls. Responses of these animals to sugar and salt appear normal.

Flies carrying Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS, Scer\GAL4c205 and Scer\GAL80ts.αTub84B and kept at 19oC have normal memory scores in a visual pattern memory assay (at this temperature, the Scer\GAL80ts.αTub84B protein inhibits Scer\GAL4c205). When these flies are shifted to a temperature of 30oC (which inactivates Scer\GAL80ts.αTub84B, allowing expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4c205) the flies have no visual pattern memory (although flight control and heat avoidance is normal). expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4c205 at 30oC have no visual pattern memory, in contrast to wild-type flies. Flight control and heat avoidance are normal in these animals.

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS, under the control of Scer\GAL4Ccap.PP results in wing expansion deficits in approximately two-thirds of animals, with one-third completely failing to expand their wings. These flies are also poorly melanized. Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4dimm-929 results in complete wing expansion failure in less than 1% of animals.

Larval expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS using the mosaic motor neuron driver Scer\GAL4OK319 results in paralysis. The NMJ synapses in these flies exhibit fully developed postsynaptic receptor fields.

All animals that express Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4ap-md544 hatch and go through metamorphosis. These animals are not sluggish and walk normally. However, adult females show a strong egg retention phenotype and have ovaries filled with stage 14 oocytes. These females are able to lay a small number of eggs and larvae develop from these. The receptivity response to sex peptide is also impaired in these females. Expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4Tab2-201Y does not inhibit oviposition nor fertility.

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS in Rh5-specific photoreceptors under the control of Scer\GAL4Rh5.PT results in a severe reduction in response to light. Head-swinging behaviour, in response to light stimulation is severely reduced in these mutants.

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS in Rh6-specific photoreceptors under the control of Scer\GAL4Rh6.PD does not affect larval response to light or head swinging behaviour (in response to light stimulation).

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS in pacemaker neurons under the control of Scer\GAL4P2.4.Pdf does not cause any drastic change in the morphology of these neurons nor affect the larval response to light.

Ablation of PDF neurons through expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4tim.Scer\UAS does not affect the larval response to light.

Flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS, under the control of Scer\GAL4NP1535, show severely reduced proboscis extension reflex rates in response to 100mM sucrose.

Blocking synaptic transmission of "hug" neurons, achieved by expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4S3.hug, causes flies to show different feeding behavior compared to wild-type flies. Scer\GAL4S3.hug>Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS flies initiate uptake of food immediately when confronted with red yeast paste after being fed on standard fly food overnight, while wild-type flies take 15-35 minutes to initiate food uptake in these conditions. Overnight starvation equalizes feeding behavior on yeast paste between Scer\GAL4S3.hug>Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS and wild-type flies.

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS throughout the CNS, using Scer\GAL4elav-C155 as the driver, causes embryonic paralysis and an inhibition of ventral nerve cord (VNC) condensation compared to wild-type embryos. Although the VNC is shorter than in wild type, its gross morphology appears normal.

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS in all photoreceptors, under the control of Scer\GAL4GMR.PF, reduces the extent of 5-HT arborization in the larval brain. The same phenotype occurs when Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS is expressed in just Rh6 photoreceptors, under the control of Scer\GAL4Rh6.PD.

Larvae expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4109(2)80 show no significant defects in thermotactic behaviour in a thermal preference assay. They show an abnormal response to contact with a 55oC probe; many of the larvae fail to exhibit the curling that is seen in wild-type larvae under these conditions. Third instar larvae expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4TrpA1.PR are partially, but significantly compromised in themotactic behaviour in a thermal preference assay, but show normal withdrawal from high temperature nocioceptive stimulus.

Adults expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4DJ651 or Scer\GAL4Lk6-DJ634 show decreased lifespan as compared to controls.

Analysis of synaptic drive to motoneurons in Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS; Scer\GAL4slmo-c682 shows an almost complete absence of patterned synaptic excitation.

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4131a, Scer\GAL4179a or Scer\GAL4250 results in adults which show abnormal responses to ethyl acetate, acetone and ethanol in an olfactory preference test. Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4345 results in adults which show abnormal responses to acetone and ethanol and normal responses to ethyl acetate in an olfactory preference test. Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4148a results in adults which show abnormal responses to ethanol and normal responses to ethyl acetate and acetone in an olfactory preference test. Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4555 results in adults which show abnormal responses to acetone and normal responses to ethyl acetate and ethanol in an olfactory preference test. Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4588 results in adults which show abnormal responses to acetone and propionaldehyde and normal responses to ethyl acetate in an olfactory preference test. Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4272 results in adults which show abnormal responses to ethyl acetate and normal responses to acetone and acetic acid in an olfactory preference test.

When Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS is driven by Scer\GAL4Ddc.PL, does not effect larval viability or moulting. When Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS is driven by Scer\GAL4dimm-929, a significant loss of viability is seen in second instar larvae.

Animals expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of both Scer\GAL44C and Scer\GAL8028-3 do not show any speed deficit, but they show aberrant larval turning behaviour when compared with controls. Flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of both Scer\GAL80αTub84B.PL and Scer\GAL44C do not show the aberrant turning phenotype.

Flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4Tre.1 show a significant reduction in their preference for 25mM trehalose compared to control flies. These flies show a preference for 2mM sucrose vs 2mM sucrose + 6mM caffeine (as do control flies). Flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4Gr66a.PD or Scer\GAL4Gr22e.PD fail to avoid caffeine in a two-choice feeding assay (where the choice is 2mM sucrose vs 2mM sucrose + 6mM caffeine), although they respond normally to 1mM quinine, avoiding it in a choice of 2mM sucrose vs 2mM sucrose + 1mM quinine.

When Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS is driven by Scer\GAL4P2.4.Pdf mutant animals exhibit a reduced sensitivity to cocaine.

Geotaxis, sugar sensitivity and sugar discrimination (trehelose vs sucrose) are normal in Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS; Scer\GAL4Gr68a.PB flies. However males of this genotype perform poorly in courtship assays: an average of 41% of males fail to mate during a 30 minute, compared to less than 10% for controls, and the males that do mate take longer to get round to it than control males (mating latency = 12-14.5 min versus 6-7 min for wild-type). These males actually spend slightly more time initiating mating than wild-type males, but spend 2-3 fold time on the subsequent steps of courtship (wing extension and attempted copulation), so that overall they spend significantly less time courting females than controls do. These effects are not seen when Scer\GAL4Gr66a.PD is used in place of Scer\GAL4Gr68a.PB. A much smaller increase in mating failure and latency is seen with Scer\GAL4Gr22e.PD. In competitive mating experiments with wild-type males, Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS; Scer\GAL4Gr68a.PB males are almost always unsuccessful (45/46 experiments). Unlike wild-type males, Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS; Scer\GAL4Gr68a.PB males do not attempt to mate with 'pheremonally feminized' (traScer\UAS.cFa; Scer\GAL4Switch2.30) males.

Targeted expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL485b selectively impairs olfactory behaviour. Compared with wild-type, benzaldehyde evokes a markedly reduced behavioural response in females expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL485b at both high and low concentrations. Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS via Scer\GAL485b impairs propionic acid perception at low concentration in males compared with wild-type.

Targeted expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4oeC engenders a general reduction in either attraction or repulsion, compared with wild-type, in response to various chemicals. Scer\GAL4oeC>Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS males respond abnormally to the low benzaldehyde and propionic acid concentrations, and to high ethyl acetate concentration. Females of the same genotype show defective responses to concentrated propionic acid and acetone. Behavioural response to butanol is not affected by expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4oeC. A significant sex is found for the low concentrations of benzaldehyde, propionic acid and acetone, as well as for concentrated acetone.

Adults expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4ple.PF are devoid of major locomotor defects. However, these flies are overexcited upon startle; in an assay in which flies are placed in a column with a conic bottom end and then suddenly tapped to the bottom to startle them, the mutant flies remain whirling at the bottom of the tube and start climbing after a longer delay than wild-type flies (which quickly recover and start climbing the column).

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS, under the control of Scer\GAL4BG487, leads to impaired exocytosis of Fas2 in larval MNMJs.

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of one of Scer\GAL4eve.RRK, Scer\GAL4343, Scer\GAL4Mz604, Scer\GAL4Mz840, Scer\GAL4OK72, Scer\GAL4OK83 or Scer\GAL4326 does not cause significant deficits in crawling in larvae.

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of one of Scer\GAL4H24, Scer\GAL4Tab2-201Y, Scer\GAL4Jan115 or Scer\GAL4Jan204 has no effect on the larval locomotor pattern.

Third instar larvae expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of one of Scer\GAL4how-24B, Scer\GAL4c819, Scer\GAL4Mz689 or Scer\GAL4Mz972-21 show altered locomotion compared to wild-type larvae; the average speed of crawling is reduced and the average turning rate is increased (except for when the driver is Scer\GAL4Mz689). The average time spent in peristaltic locomotion (the mean duration of straight moves) is not reduced (except for when the driver is Scer\GAL4Mz972-21). Average pause duration is significantly increased (except for a non significant but consistent increase in the duration of pause episodes when the driver is Scer\GAL4Mz689).

Third instar larvae expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL44C show an unusual circling locomotory behavior; approximately 1/3 of the crawling tracks are almost perfect circles. There does not appear to be a bias in circling direction, and larvae can switch direction in the middle of a crawling episode. The larvae spend almost twice as long as wild-type larvae in straight moves. The average speed of crawling is reduced. Larvae expressing a "weak" Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS line under the control of Scer\GAL44C have identical turning rates to those of control larvae, while larvae strongly expressing a "strong" Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS line under the control of Scer\GAL44C show an increase in turning rates and a strong reduction in maximum speed. There is a reduction in peal peristaltic speed in the mutant larvae, but no significant difference compared to wild type is seen for the frequency of peristaltic waves, the length of peristaltic strides or in the rate of body contractions.

Third instar larvae expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4Ddc.PL show altered locomotion compared to wild-type larvae; there is an increase in turning rate and a reduction in average speed. The mutant larvae do not show circling.

Third instar larvae expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4acj6-PG63 or Scer\GAL4dimm-929 show altered locomotion compared to wild-type larvae; there is a significant reduction in average crawling speed, although there is no change in turning rate.

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4Fmrf.PS has no effect on turning or speed of locomotion in third instar larvae.

When Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS is driven by Scer\GAL4109(2)80, mutant larvae fail to respond to noxious heat, even after 10s of stimulation. They also fail to respond to strong mechanical stimuli.

Males expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4Mef2.247 are virtually non-aggressive in a behavioural assay.

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS in aCC/RP2 neurons, under the control of Scer\GAL4eve.RRK severely reduces the frequency of suprathreshold inputs to these neurons when compared with controls.

Flies in which expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS is driven by Scer\GAL4GMR.PF survive to adulthood but are unable to respond to moving stripes in optomotor experiments. Flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4rdgC.PK show a reduced average walking speed. A proportion of these flies show a significant reduction in active time. 52% of these flies fail to initiate flight within 60s, compared to 100% of control flies. Additionally, the average time before spontaneous flight is longer than in control flies. These mutant flies avoid the odour isoamylacetate at a significantly higher rate than controls.

When expression is driven by Scer\GAL412.1, causing embryos to lack input from the peripheral nervous system, embryos show well-coordinated forward and backward peristaltic movements. Overall period for forward wave is longer than controls and frequency of forward peristalsis is markedly reduced. The usual bursts of forward waves do not occur, though pattern of backward waves is unaffected. Once hatched, behavior of larvae is abnormal - forward movement is infrequent, most movement is backwards and head swinging is frequent. Larvae are insensitive to touch.

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4sca-537.4 significantly reduces the appearance and frequency of EPSCs and totally abolishes sustained currents in aCC/RP2. The arborisation of the aCC, including total area, maximum spread and position relative to the axon scaffold appears normal. aCC and RP2 have abnormal electrical properties in embryos expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4sca-537.4. Peak total IKfast is greater than in controls. Total IKslow is increased. There is also a marked increase in INa. There is a small, although statistically insignificant decrease in ICa. Membrane capacitance is unaffected. Depolarisation of the aCC/RP2 neurons results in significantly more action potentials fired compared with controls. There is also a significant increase in the amplitude of the first action potential produced, although the threshold for action potential firing is not altered.

A weakening of the locomotor activity rhythm occurs at the end of the 6-day period of constant darkness analysis when the activity is plotted by fractions of 2 days. This long-term effect has been seen only with the P{UAS-TeTxLC.tnt}H2 insertion, in the presence of two copies of Scer\GAL41118 and Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS.

Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS expression under the control of Scer\GAL4GH146 results in flies with impaired odorant detection at low concentrations of ethyl acetate, 1-octen-3-ol, 2-hexanol, and trans-hexanal as test substances. The same effect is observed at higher concentrations for 2-hexanol but not the other odorants. Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS expression under the control of Scer\GAL4GH146 has no negative effect on sucrose perception. Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS expression under the control of Scer\GAL4GH146 also results in flies with impaired head roll response, missing optomotor responses for 2 different stimuli, and no visually induced landing response. Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS expression under the control of Scer\GAL4GH146 in male flies results in impaired experience-independant courtship.

When Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS is driven by Scer\GAL4elav.PLu, it is embryonic lethal. When Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS is driven by Scer\GAL4how-24B, larvae survive until third instar. Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS, Scer\GAL4elav.Switch.PO flies are viable, however when fed yeast containing RU486 embryonic survival drops to almost zero.

When Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS is driven by Scer\GAL4A307 leads to pupal lethality.

The proportion of individually tested adults that entrain to light:dark (LD) cycles in a locomotor-activity rhythm assay is reduced in animals expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4per.PK or Scer\GAL4tim.PE compared to control adults. In addition, the period values slightly diverge from 24 hours in flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4per.PK or Scer\GAL4tim.PE. Clear anticipation of lights-off (as measured by a rise in locomotor activity) under LD conditions occurs in only 15-80% of animals expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS (from the P{UAS-TeTxLC.tnt}G2 insertion) under the control of Scer\GAL4per.PK or Scer\GAL4tim.PE, depending on the Scer\GAL4 line used. In contrast, anticipation of lights-off is observed for all control individuals under LD conditions. Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4per.PK or Scer\GAL4tim.PE under constant darkness conditions results in abnormally high degrees of behavioural arrhythmicity compared to control flies. Flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4P2.4.Pdf do not show appreciable defects in rhythmicity in LD cycles or in constant darkness conditions (in a locomotor activity assay).

When expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS is driven in the dopamine and serotonin neurons by Scer\GAL4Ddc.PL, a higher proportion of flies exhibited a severe response to an initial dose of cocaine compared to wild-type. Also no sensitization was seen on repeated exposures to cocaine, in contrast to wild-type. Flies expressing G-iα65AScer\UAS.cLa under the control of Scer\GAL4Ddc.PL show significantly increased locomotor responses to the dopamine D2-like agonist quinpirole compared to controls. Flies expressing G-iα65AScer\UAS.cLa under the control of Scer\GAL4Ddc.PL exhibit no overt behavioural or lethality phenotypes are seen.

When driven by Scer\GAL4c561 flies develop normal ethanol tolerance. When driven by Scer\GAL4078Y or Scer\GAL4007Y flies develop show a reduced ethanol tolerance.

Flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS (and Taes\WGA2Scer\UAS.cYa) under the control of Scer\GAL4ninaE.PTa show an absence of on/off transients, which represent synaptic transmission.

When expression is driven by Scer\GAL4c17 in the giant fibre the response in the TTM to repetitive firing is reduced. This effect is not seen with Ctet\TeTxLCIMPTNT-V.Scer\UAS.

Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS when driven by Scer\GAL4sca-537.4 does not affect the curent evoked by iontopheric application of acetocholine to aCC and RP2 neurons, the ability to initiate action potentials, is also not affected. The number of action potentials fired in response to such a stimulus also remains unchanged. Where sustained currents in aCC expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS driven by Scer\GAL4eve.RRC persisted their frequency remained unchanged.

Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS when driven by Scer\GAL4sca-537.4 significantly reduces the number of aCC and RP2 neurons that show both excitatory post-synaptic currents (epscs), 2/10 compared to 8/9 for controls. In those rare cases when epscs are seen, their frequency is much reduced (0.6+/-0.04 per minute, compared to 3.1+/-1 in controls). The number of aCC and RP2 neurons showing sustained inward currents is also reduced to zero (compared to 8/10 in controls) Also, paralysis is induced in the embryo. Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS when driven by Scer\GAL4eve.RRC specifically disrupts synaptic vesicle release from the aCC neuron and abolishes the excitatory junctional current (ejc) evoked in its target muscle DA1. Other motorneurons and their targets are unaffected. In Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS/Scer\GAL4eve.RRC flies there is also a reduction in the synaptic input (both epscs and sustained inward currents) that this neuron received compared to controls. Epscs are present in 5/18 aCC neurons tested compared to 14/18 in Ctet\TeTxLCIMPTNT-V.Scer\UAS controls. Amplitude of epscs is unaffected. epscs in the pCC neurons are unaffected. Also in Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS/Scer\GAL4eve.RRC flies there is a significant reduction in the overall number of aCC neurons that show sustained inward currents (4/18, compared to 14/18 in controls), however in those cases where inward currents persist the frequency is unaffected. Sustained inward currents are unaffected in pCC neurons. When examined using electron microscopy, presynaptic clusters are seen about 1/5 of the time seen in controls.

The progeny from a cross between Scer\GAL4GH86 and Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS are fully viable and develop normally. Neither are there any obvious behavioural changes in feeding or locomotion. In larvae expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS driven by Scer\GAL4GH86, odour-controlled behaviour is severely impaired. In olfactory larval plate assays, mutants show a severely reduced attraction to butanol, ethyl acetate, cyclohexanone and propionic acid and a mild attraction to N-octyl acetate (in contrast to a repulsive effect seen in wild-type). Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS by Scer\GAL4GH86 reduces gustatory responses to sodium chloride and sugars. In larval gustatory choice tests, mutants show a severely reduced attraction to both sucrose and fructose. Larvae also show a reduced response to NaCl compared to wild type over a range of concentrations. Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS by Scer\GAL4GH86 causes defects in sensory projection patterns. The bilateral symmetry of arborization patterns of the chemosensory afferents from the pharyngeal sensory neurons and the peripheral nervous system seems to be disturbed in few cases. Afferents project into correct target regions but exhibit local misrouting. Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS expression leads to a different morphology of arborizations inside the larval antennal lobe and tritocerebrum target regions. Arborizations of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS preparations are swollen and seem to take up more space inside their target neuropil.

Flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4MZ1369 survive up to the end of metamorphosis, but most do not eclose, and all flies die within the first hours of adulthood. The organisation of the medulla in the optic lobes is disturbed in flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4MZ1369 and there is a complete loss of columnar organisation in the proximal medulla (9th layer). The arborisations of the Fas2-positive lamina monopolar cells in the distal medulla appear disorganised and show overlaps. Arborisations of photoreceptors R7 and R8 show severe morphological abnormalities, having broader extensions and more overlaps. The defects in photoreceptor terminal morphology are also seen if Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS is expressed under the control of Scer\GAL4GMR.PF. In contrast, the Fas2-positive lamina monopolar cells develop arborisations in the distal medulla that appear normal when Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS is expressed under the control of Scer\GAL4GMR.PF. The pattern of apoptosis in the optic lobes is similar to wild type when Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS is expressed under the control of Scer\GAL4MZ1369, both 1/4 of the way through pupal development (when large numbers of cells in the optic lobe cortices undergo apoptosis) and 1/2 way through pupal development (when apoptosis in the optic lobes almost vanishes).

Flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL417d, have a block of memory retrieval if any of the experimental conditions are changed between training and test in a visual learning assay. Flies tolerate neither a switch between monochromatic and white light. They also show no memory under continuous dark flash conditions.

Flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4205, Scer\GAL4C5, Scer\GAL4078Y, Scer\GAL4007Y or Scer\GAL4c584 show a pronounced reduction in total locomotor activity.

Embryos expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4sca-537.4 show a reduction in the frequency and amplitude of "EPSC-like" currents (inward currents that can reach 25pA in amplitude and have a rapid activation but slower inactivation in wild-type embryos) in CNS neurons.

Larvae expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4Mhc.PW develop normally and do not show any adverse behavioural phenotype.

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4Tab2-201Y, Scer\GAL4H24 or Scer\GAL417d significantly increases the total walking activity of these flies compared to wild-type. The number of walking 'bouts' is not significantly affected in flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4H24 or Scer\GAL417d, but is significantly decreased under the control of Scer\GAL4Tab2-201Y.

Flies expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4MT26 show a reduction in the amount of food ingested during 12 seconds compared to wild-type flies.

Scer\GAL450y-mediated expression suppresses the resistance reflex of the tibia (resistance reflex between the sensory neurons of the chordotonal organ and the tibial extensor motor neurons), Scer\GAL4c362-mediated expression completely abolishes the reflex. This phenocopies the Gl1 phenotype.

When expression is driven by Scer\GAL41407, paralysis and embryonic lethality results. Evoked synaptic transmission is completely eliminated at the NMJ. However the postsynaptic membrane responds normally to applied L-glutamate. The NMJs develop in the normal synaptic domains on muscles, and bouton morphology is normal at the light microscope level. Ultrastructure of embryonic synapses is largely indistinguishable from wild type, except that release sites show an approximately 50% increase in clustered vesicles. The percentage of vesicles that have contacted, or are close to, the presynaptic membrane is increased compared to wild type. Miniature excitatory junctional currents occur at the mature embryonic NMJ. Latrotoxin-induced fusion of synaptic vesicles fails.

Scer\GAL4 mediated expression is toxic to flies. Expression in targetted areas in embryos (muscles or nervous system) does not affect morphological development. Expression in body muscles has no detectable behavioural consequences in the embryo. Expression in the nervous system eliminates coordinated muscle movement. Targeted expression can block synaptic transmission specifically in a targetted neuron by preventing the secretion of synaptic vesicles in the presynaptic terminal. Detectable n-syb is cleaved at synapses. Targeted expression can cause a specific behavioral defect.

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Ctet\tetXTNT-LC.UAS, Scer\GAL4eve.RRK has synapse & RP2 neuron phenotype, suppressible by Fas2EB112

Ctet\tetXTNT-LC.UAS, Scer\GAL4eve.RRK has synapse & aCC neuron phenotype, suppressible by Fas2EB112

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The reduced lifespan seen in males expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4DJ651 can be increased if the males also carry either Indy206/+ or Indy302/+. Only a small increase in lifespan is seen in females expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4DJ651 and carrying either Indy206/+ or Indy302/+. The lifespan of males expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4DJ651 is significantly extended if they also carry either Rpd304556 or Rpd3def24. The lifespan of females expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4DJ651 is significantly extended if they also carry Rpd304556. The lifespan of males expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4DJ651 can be extended if they are fed 0.005% or 0.001% lipoic acid, or 100μM or 200μM resveratrol.

In the absence of Fas2, in Fas2EB112 mutants, the effect of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS expression in aCC/RP2 neurons (under the control of Scer\GAL4eve.RRK) on the frequency of synaptic inputs is significantly diminished compared to Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS expression in wild-type.

Xenogenetic Interactions
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Larval phototaxis is changed from positive to negative when Scer\GAL80elav.PY is introduced into Scer\GAL4NP394>Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS larvae.

per01 mutant files co-expressing perScer\UAS.cBa and Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4Mai179 display morning anticipation in their locomotor activity, but they completely lose evening anticipation, compared with controls with Ctet\TeTxLCIMPTNT-V.Scer\UAS expression.

Anticipatory activity is absent in the morning and almost completely lost in the evening in per01 mutants co-expressing perScer\UAS.cBa and Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of both Scer\GAL4Mai179 and Scer\GAL80Pdf.PS.

Expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4elav.PH has no effect on the increase in bouton number seen at the neuromuscular junction of third larval instar ewg2 motorneurons (these motorneurons have been obtained by using FLP/FRT mediated recombination to inactivate the ewgelav.PH rescuing transgene and simultaneously activate the Scer\GAL4elav.PH driver in a ewg2 background in late embryogenesis).

Blocking synaptic transmission of "hug" neurons, achieved by expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4S3.hug, results in significant suppression of the klu feeding phenotype.

The reduced lifespan seen in males expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4DJ651 can be enhanced if the males also carry either Indy206/+ or Indy302/+. The reduced lifespan of females expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4DJ651 is only slightly rescued by heterozygosity for Indy206 or Indy302. The reduced lifespan of males expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4DJ651 is significantly suppressed by either HDAC104556 or HDAC1def24. The reduced lifespan of females expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4DJ651 is significantly suppressed if they also carry HDAC104556. The reduced lifespan of males expressing Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4DJ651 can be suppressed if they are fed 0.005% or 0.001% lipoic acid, or 100μM or 200μM resveratrol.

In the absence of Fas2, in Fas2EB112 mutants, the effect of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS expression in aCC/RP2 neurons (under the control of Scer\GAL4eve.RRK) on the frequency of synaptic inputs is significantly diminished compared to Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS expression in wild-type.

The reduction in amplitude of glutamate-gated currents seen in the Gad1L352F postsynaptic neuromuscular junction is not rescued by the expression of Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS under the control of Scer\GAL4elav.PLu.

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Shows normal GABA staining in stage 17 nerve cord, when expression is driven by Scer\GAL4elav-C155.

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Synonyms and Secondary IDs (5)
Reported As
Symbol Synonym
Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.Scer\UAS
Ctet\TeTxLCTNT.UAS
Ctet\tetXTNT-LC.UAS
Ctet\tetXTNT.UAS
TeTxLCTNT.UAS
Name Synonyms
Secondary FlyBase IDs
    References (231)